Antioxidant properties of processed cheese spread after freeze-dried and oven-dried grape skin powder addition
Keywords:grape, valorisation, processed cheese, antioxidant, chromatography
Processed cheese spread (PCS) is a popular product with high nutritional value and containing protein, fat and minerals. Grape skin is waste from winery processing plants that still has phenolic substances with significant antioxidant activity that could be used for valorisation of processed cheese and increasing the content of nutrients, phenolics and overall antioxidant properties. Both oven-dried (OD) and freeze-dried (FD) grape skin (GS) powder was characterised by the principal ingredients, the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Similarly, the influence of the addition of OD-GS and FD-GS powders on processed cheese spread (PCS) at 1% and 2% (w/w) levels were examined. The OD-GS and FD-GS powders were characterised by protein content, fat content, moisture and dietary fibre, thus showing that drying technique did not affect those parameters. The OD-GS powder exhibited higher content of rutin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and total flavonoid content (TFC), while higher total phenolic content (TPC) and ABTS radical cation were observed for freeze-dried GS powder. Fortification of PCS with 1% and 2% (w/w) of GS powder increased protein content. An ANOVA procedure revealed that addition of FD-GS powder to processed cheese spread was superior to TPC values together with rutin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin contents. The higher phenolic contents reflected the higher antioxidant capacity of PCS samples fortified with FD-GS powder. Freeze-dried gape skin powder was the better choice for valorisation of processed cheese spread.
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