Investigating chemical changes during Snake fruit and Black tea Kombucha fermentation and the associated immunomodulatory activity in Salmonella typhi-infected mice


  • Elok Zubaidah Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran, Malang, Indonesia 65145, Tel.: +62341569214
  • Vania Valencia Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran, Malang, Indonesia 65145, Tel.: +62341569214
  • Muhaimin Rifa'i Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia 65145, Tel: +62341578248
  • Ignatius Srianta Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Jalan Dinoyo 42-44, Surabaya, Indonesia 60265, Tel: +62315678478
  • Ihab Tewfik School of Life Sciences, Division of Food, Nutrition and Public Health, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, United Kingdom, Tel: +442079115000



kombucha, snake fruit, black tea, immunomodulator, Salmonella typhi


This study uncovered the chemical changes during kombucha's fermentation process and revealed the associated immunomodulatory activity in Salmonella typhi-infected mice. The snake fruit juice and black tea extract were processed into kombucha (a beverage known for its health benefits) by fermentation with SCOBY culture at room temperature for  14 days. Snake fruit kombucha showed high changes in fermentation parameters (total acidity, pH, and total sugar), as well as bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Salmonella typhi demonstrated a reduction in the population of CD8+TNFα+ and CD4+IFNγ+ of infected experimental animals. Both snake fruit kombucha and black tea kombucha have the potential to be utilized as an immunomodulator to circumvent unstable conditions of the immune system caused by Salmonella typhi. Black tea kombucha and snake fruit kombucha cancan raise the production of CD8+TNFα+ and CD4+IFNγ+ in mice infected with Salmonella typhi. In the group of normal mice, black tea and snake fruit kombucha were able to lower down the production of CD8+TNFα+, which is a potent mechanism to modulate the immune system. Further research is required to highlight the mechanism and role of black tea kombucha and snake fruit kombucha in the immune response that modulates and treats infection by Salmonella typhi.


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How to Cite

Zubaidah, E., Valencia, V., Rifa’i, M., Srianta, I., & Tewfik, I. (2020). Investigating chemical changes during Snake fruit and Black tea Kombucha fermentation and the associated immunomodulatory activity in Salmonella typhi-infected mice. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, 995–1000.