The use of consumer neuroscience in aroma marketing of a service company
Keywords:consumer neuroscience, aroma marketing, service company, aroma, Sport Caffé
In today's highly competitive era, it is becoming increasingly difficult for businesses to attract and keep customers. Modern marketing strategies focused on examining customer behavior, and possibilities of the business sector in influencing them are becoming increasingly beneficial. Consumer neuroscience has great potential here, as it reveals internal consumer preferences by using innovative techniques. Human senses play an important role in affecting these preferences, and smell has the greatest potential to influence customers subconsciously, and thus support the sale of products, keep customers in the store longer, or build a brand. Aroma marketing is the continuously developing field of consumer neuroscience. The paper aims to examine the use of consumer neuroscience in aroma marketing of a service company. After theoretical analysis, we carried out practical research aimed at examining the impact of aroma marketing in a selected service company – Sport Café in Nitra – to increase the sales of a particular product, and its real impact on the economic indicators of this company through the use of consumer neuroscience tools and questionnaire survey. In aromatization, choosing the right aroma is of the utmost importance, therefore in our research, this selection was done in the Laboratory of Consumer Studies at the Faculty of Economics and Management, SUA in Nitra. The research was carried out through conscious and unconscious testing of selected aromas by a randomly chosen sample of customers. Conscious testing included using a questionnaire method and unconscious testing was done using a face-reading device that provides an objective assessment of emotions based on facial expressions. The choice of aroma was followed by testing in real conditions, by diffusing the aroma in the café. Based on the collected data, we confirmed the positive impact of aromatization on coffee sales. In conclusion, we present some recommendations for service companies, focused mainly on cafés, with emphasis on the importance of aromatization for attracting and keeping customers and improving profitability.
Air/Aroma. 2020. Scent Marketing. Available at: https://www.air-aroma.com/scent-marketing
Aldo, A. 2014. What is Heart Rate Variability? And Why Does It Matter? Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sweet-emotion/201406/what-is-heart-rate-variability-and-why-does-it-matter
Aroma Marketing. 2020. O nás (About us). (In Slovak) Available at: https://www.aromarketing.sk/o-nas
Bell, S. 2006. Future sense: defining brands through scent. GDR Creative Intelligence, no. 21, 5 p. Available at: https://api.natscent.com/pdf/5_bell_and_bell_futuresense.pdf
Berčík, J., Palúchová, J., Vietoris, V., Horská, E. 2016. Placing of aroma compounds by food sales promotion in chosen services business. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 672-679. https://doi.org/10.5219/666
Berčík, J., Paluchová, J., Gálová, J., Bajús, J. 2017. Innovative Research Tools for Retail and Services. In International Scientific Conference Managerial Trends in the Development of Enterprises in Globalizatio Era. Nitra, Slovakia : SUA, p. 734-741. ISBN 978-80-552-1739-0.
Berčík, J., Paluchová, J., Gálová, J., Neomániová, K., Hladíková, L. 2018. Aroma Marketing – a Modern Marketing Phenomenon. In International Scientific Days 2018 : Towards Productive, Sustainable and Resilient Global Agriculture and Food Systems : Proceedings. Prague, Czech republic : Wolters Kluwer, p. 586-598. ISBN: 978-80-7598-180-6. https://doi.org/10.15414/isd2018.s2-3.02
Bilek, M., Vietoris, V., Ilko, V. 2016. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 499-505. https://doi.org/10.5219/649
Bradford, K. D., Desrochers, D. M. 2010. The Use of Scents to Influence Consumers: The Sense of Using Scents to Make Cents. Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 90, p. 141-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0377-5
Cartwright, S. 2014. How and why businesses make use of Scent Marketing to boost sales. Available at: https://website-designs.com/online-marketing/scent-marketing/scent-marketing-to-boost-sales/
Conick, H. 2017. Good Smells Are Good Marketing: How to Use Scent to Your Advantage. American Marketing Association. Available at: http://www.amapittsburgh.org/2017/08/08/good-smells-are-good-marketing-how-to-use-scent-to-your-advantage/
Erenkol, D. A. 2015. Sensory marketing. Journal of Administrative Sciences and Policy Studies, vol. 1, no. 3, 26 p. https://doi.org/10.15640/jasps.v3n1a1
Ferguson, R. 2009. Neuromarketing: what the human brain means to your campaign. Available at: https://www.chiefmarketer.com/neuromarketing-what-the-human-brain-means-to-your-campaign/
Füziková, S., Madleňák, A. 2017. Marketing vôní ako inovatívna forma propagácie služieb (Aroma marketing as an innovative form of service promotion). (In Slovak) Available at: https://fmk.sk/download/SVOaUK-2017-Sekcia-marketingovej-komunikacie.pdf
Genco, J. S., Pohlmann, P. A., Steidl, P. 2013. Neuromarketing for Dummies. New Jersey, USA : John Wiley & Sons Inc, 408 p. ISBN 978-11-185-1899-1.
Guéguen, N., Petr, C. 2006. Odors and consumer behavior in a restaurant. International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 335-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2005.04.007
HBR. 2020. Neuromarketing: What you need to know. Available at: https://hbr.org/2019/01/neuromarketing-what-you-need-to-know
Jiménez-Marín, G. 2016. Merchandising & Retail, Comunicación en el punto de venta (Merchandising & Retail, Communication at the point of sale). Sevilla, Spain : Advook, 200 p. (In Spanish) ISBN 978-84-942-9693-2.
Jiménez-Marín, G., Bellido-Pérez, E., López-Cortés, Á. 2019. Marketing sensorial: el concepto, sus técnicas y su aplicación en el punto de venta (Sensory marketing: the concept, its techniques and its application at the point of sale). Vivat Academia. Revista de Comunicación, vol. 15, no. 148, p. 121-147. (In Spanish) https://doi.org/10.15178/va.2019.148.121-147
Jurášková, O., Horňák, P. 2012. Velký slovník marketingových komunikací (Large dictionary of marketing communications). Praha, Czech republic : Grada Publishing, 272 p. (In Czech) ISBN 978-80-247-4354-7.
Karmarkar, U. R. 2011. Note on Neuromarketing. Case Study. MA, USA : Harvard Business School Background Note 512-031.
Kozelová, D., Zajác, P., Matejková, E., Zeleňáková, L., Lopašovský, Ľ., Mura, L., Čapla, J., Vietoris, V. 2011. Perception of bio-food labeling by consumers in Slovakia. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 33-38. https://doi.org/10.5219/107
Kozelová, D., Fikselová, M., Vietoris, V., Czako, P. 2013. Analysis of the Slovak consumer behavior regarding the organic food purchase. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, vol. 61, no. 7, p. 2343-2350. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201361072343
Krishna, A. 2012. An integrative review of sensory marketing: Engaging the senses to affect perception, judgment and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 332-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.08.003
Kulynych, J. 2002. Legal and ethical issues in neuromarketing research: human subjects protection, medical privacy, and the public communication of research results. Brain and Cognition, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 345-357. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-2626(02)00518-3
Labská, H., Tajtáková, M., Foret, M. 2009. Základy marketingovej komunikácie (Basics of marketing communication). Bratislava, Slovakia : Eurokódex, 232 p. (In Slovak) ISBN 978-80-89447-11-4.
Marketing-Schools. 2012. Neuromarketing (Neuromarketing). (In Slovak) Available at: https://www.marketing-schools.org/types-of-marketing/neuromarketing.html
Miljković, M., Alčaković, S. 2010. Neuromarketing: Marketing Research Future? Menadžment, Marketing. Trgovina, p. 274-283. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256373644_Neuromarketing_Marketing_Research_Future
Minsky, L., Fahey, C., Fabrigas, C. 2018. Inside the Invisible but Influential World of Scent Branding. Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2018/04/inside-the-invisible-but-influential-world-of-scent-branding
Mukherjee, S. 2015. ’Brainfluence’-The Effectual Appeal to Customer Psyche. Advances in Economics and Business Management, vol. 2, no. 13, p. 1291-1295.
Nadányiová, M. 2017. Zmyslový marketing ako nástroj budovania značky na medzinárodnom trhu (Sensory marketing as a tool for building a brand in the international market). Journal of International Relations, vol. 4, 101 p. (In Slovak) Available at: https://fmv.euba.sk/www_write/files/dokumenty/veda-vyskum/medzinarodne-vztahy/archiv/2017/4/MV_2017_4.pdf#page=33
Neuroscience marketing. 2019. What is neuromarketing? Available at: https://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/what-is-neuromarketing.html
NMSBA. N. D. What is neuromarketing. Available at: https://www.nmsba.com/neuromarketing/what-is-neuromarketing
Paluchová, J., Berčík, J., Neomániová, K. 2016. The atmosphere and its impact on consumer behavior in food stores. International Scientific Days 2016. The agri-food value chain: challenges for natural resources management and society. Nitra, Slovakia : SUA, p. 804-811. https://doi.org/10.15414/isd2016.s10.05
Phan, V. 2010. Neuromarketing: Who decides what you buy? The Triple Helix, p. 14-16.
Pulido, J. 2019. Scent Marketing for Restaurants. Available at: https://www.trycake.com/blog/scent-marketing-for-restaurants/
Púchovský, F., Kohoutová, L. 2015. Nástroje neuromarketingu a ich využitie v praxi. Marketingová komunikácia a médiá 14. Bratislava, Slovakia : UK, p. 160-192. ISBN 978-80-89652-10-5.
ScentAir. 2020. Engage Customers with Scent Marketing. Available at: https://scentair.com
Sikela, H. 2015. Vôňa ako súčasť identity firmy (Smell as part of the company's identity). Instoreslovakia, vol. 2, no. 13, p. 14-15. (In Slovak)
Shams, P. 2013. What Does it Take to Get your Attention? The influence of In-Store and Out-of-Store Factors on Visual Attention and Decision Making for Fast-moving Consumer Goods. Karlstad, Sweden : Karlstads universitet, p. 89.
Spectrio. 2020. Engage Your Customers. Available at: https://www.spectrio.com
Stranden, A. L. 2016. The aroma of chocolate chip cookies boosts coffee sales. Available at https://sciencenordic.com/forskningno-marketing-society--culture/the-aroma-of-chocolate-chip-cookies-boosts-coffee-sales/1438525.
Tauferova, A., Tremlova, B., Bednar, J., Golian, J., Zidek, R., Vietoris, V. 2015. Determination of ketchup sensory texture acceptability and examination of determining factors as a basis for product optimization. International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 660-669. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2013.853186
Vietoris, V., Zajac, P., Zubrická, S., Čapla, J., Čurlej, J. 2016. Comparison of total bacterial count (TBC) in bulk tank raw cow's milk and vending machine milk. Carpathian Journal of Food Science & Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 184-191.
Virkkunen, I. 2015. Consumers´ opinions on scent marketing usage in retail environment. Lappeenranta, Finland : LUT University, 90 p. Available at: http://www.doria.fi/handle/10024/103784
Vlahos, J. 2007. Scent and Sensibility. The New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/09/realestate/keymagazine/909SCENT-txt.html
Wästlund, E., Shams, P., Löfgren, M., Witell, L., Gustafsson, A. 2010. Consumer perception at point of purchase: Evaluating proposed package designs in an eye-tracking lab. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 41-51.
Zajác, P., Čapla, J., Vietoris, V., Zubrická, S., Čurlej, J. 2015. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 375-381. https://doi.org/10.5219/518
Zinina, O., Merenkova, S., Rebezov, M., Tazeddinova, D., Yessimbekov, Z., Vietoris, V. 2019. Optimization of cattle by-products amino acid composition formula. Agronomy Research, vol. 17, no. 5, p. 2127-2138. https://doi.org/10.15159/AR.19.159
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).