The content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

Authors

  • Natália Čeryová Slovak University of Agriculture, Institute of Food Science, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414378 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1865-5131
  • Iveta Čičová The Research Institute of Plant Production, Gene Bank of the Slovak Republic, Bratislavská cesta 122, 921 68, Piešťany, Tel.: +421337947345 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4167-3733
  • Judita Lidiková Slovak University of Agriculture,Institute of Food Science, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra,Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414353 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9922-4300
  • Marek Šnirc Slovak University of Agriculture, Institute of Food Science, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414345
  • Jarmila Horváthová Slovak University of Agriculture, Centre of Languages, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414353
  • Helena Lichtnerová Slovak University of Agriculture, Institute of Landscape Architecture, Tulipánová 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376415443
  • Hana Franková Slovak University of Agriculture, Institute of Food Science, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414375

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/1694

Keywords:

Allium sativum, garlic, polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidants

Abstract

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most commonly grown vegetables and thanks to its sensory properties, it has an important place in numerous world cuisines. Garlic is also known for its health-promoting properties, which are attributed to its chemical composition. The health benefits of garlic depending on the content of biologically active compounds, which vary between cultivars and geographical areas. Seven cultivars of garlic, namely Sukoradsky, Zahorsky, Germidour, Mojmir, Karel IV., Arkus, Makoi, were analyzed in this study. This study aimed to determine the total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of garlic. Studied characteristics were analyzed by the UV-VIS spectrometry method. Total polyphenol content ranged from 430.26 to 640.04 mg GAE.kg-1 FW. Total flavonoid content ranged from 10.29 to 60.49 mg CE.kg-1 FW. Antioxidant activity measured by ABTS assay ranged from 1.098 to 1.955 mmol TE.kg-1 FW. Antioxidant activity measured by FRAP assay ranged from 0.63 to 1.467 mmol.kg-1 FW. Highest TPC, TFC, and AA were determined in the cultivar Mojmir. The lowest TPC and TFC were determined in the cultivar Zahorsky. The lowest AA was determined in the cultivar Sukoradsky. High positive correlations were determined between individual parameters.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abbas, M., Saeed, F., Anjum, F. M., Afzaal, M., Tufail, T., Bashir, M. S., Suleria, H. A. R. 2017. Natural polyphenols: An overview. International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 20, no. 8, p. 1689-1699. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1220393

Azzini, E., Durazzo, A., Foddai, M. S., Temperini, O., Venneria, E., Valentini, S., Maiani, G. 2014. Phytochemicals content in Italian garlic bulb (Allium sativum L.) cultivars. Journal of Food Research, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 26. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v3n4p26

Beato, V. M., Orgaz, F., Mansilla, F., Montaño, A. 2011. Changes in phenolic compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.) owing to the cultivar and location of growth. Plant foods for human nutrition, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 218-223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-011-0236-2

Bhandari, S. R., Yoon, M. K., Kwak, J. H. 2014. Contents of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of 19 garlic (Allium sativum L.) parental lines and cultivars. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, vol. 55, p. 138-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-014-0155-x

Bhatt, A., Patel, V. 2013. Antioxidant activity of garlic using conventional extraction and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Free Radicals and Antioxidants, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 30-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fra.2013.03.003

Boonpeng, S., Siripongvutikorn, S., Sae-wong, C., Sutthirak, P. 2014. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts. Food Science & Nutrition, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 792-801. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.164

Bystrická, J., Kovarovič, J., Lenková, M., Horváthová, J., Končeková, L., Halmová, D., Lidiková, A. 2018. The content of polyphenols, antioxidant activity and macroelements in selected garlic varieties. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 738-740. https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2018.8.1.738-740

Chang, C. C., Yang, M. H., Wen, H. M., Chern, J. C. 2002. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 178-182. https://doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.2748

Chen, S., Shen, X., Cheng, S., Li, P., Du, J., Chang, Y., Meng, H. 2013. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties. PloS one, vol. 8, no. 11, p. e79730. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079730

Chun, O. K., Kim, D. O., Smith, N., Schroeder, D., Han, J. T., Lee, C. Y. 2005. Daily consumption of phenolics and total antioxidant capacity from fruit and vegetables in the American diet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 85, no.10, p. 1715-1724. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2176

Cory, H., Passarelli, S., Szeto, J., Tamez, M., Mattei, J. 2018. The role of polyphenols in human health and food systems: A mini-review. Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 5, p. 87. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2018.00087

Cutrim, C. S., Cortez, M. A. S. 2018. A review on polyphenols: Classification, beneficial effects and their application in dairy products. International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 71, no. 3, p. 564-578. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12515

Gorinstein, S., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Drzewiecki, J., Najman, K., Katrich, E., Trakhtenberg, S. 2006. Raw and boiled garlic enhances plasma antioxidant activity and improves plasma lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 6, p. 655-663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.069

Gorinstein, S., Park, Y. S., Heo, B. G., Namiesnik, J., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Kang, S. G. 2009. A comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in frequently consumed raw vegetables. European Food Research and Technology, vol. 228, no. 6, p. 903-911. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-1003-y

Hedges, L. J., Lister, C. E. 2007. The nutritional attributes of Allium species. Crop and food research confidential report, report no. 1814. http://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.4265.4402

Choi, J. H., Davis, A. R., Hugo Cota-Sánchez, J. 2011. Comparative floral structure of four new world Allium (Amaryllidaceae) species. Systematic Botany, vol. 36, no. 4, p. 870-882. https://doi.org/10.1600/036364411x604895

Kavalcová, P., Bystrická, J., Tomáš, J., Karovičová, J., Kuchtová, V. 2014. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in onion, garlic and leek. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 272-276. https://doi.org/10.5219/394

Khalid, N., Ahmed, I., Latif, M. S. Z., Rafique, T., Fawad, S. A. 2014. Comparison of antimicrobial activity, phytochemical profile and minerals composition of garlic Allium sativum and Allium tuberosum. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, vol. 57, no.3, p. 311-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13765-014-4021-4

Khan, M. S., Quershi, N. A., Jabeen, F., Asghar, M. S., Shakeel, M. 2016. Analysis of minerals profile, phenolic compounds and potential of Garlic (Allium sativum) as antioxidant scavenging the free radicals. International Journal of Biosciences, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 72-82. https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/8.4.72-82

Khan, N., Fayyaz, M., Abbasi, A. M., Khan, S. A., Nazir, A. 2017. Development of an efficient callus derived regeneration system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) from root explant. Journal of Plant Breeding and Agriculture, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 3. http://doi.org/10.1079/IVP2002378

Kim, J. S., Kang, O. J., Gweon, O. C. 2013. Comparison of phenolic acids and flavonoids in black garlic at different thermal processing steps. Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 80-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.08.006

Kovarovič, J., Bystrická, J., Fehér, A., Lenková, M. 2017. Evaluation and comparison of bioactive substances in selected species of the genus Allium. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 702-708. https://doi.org/10.5219/833

Lachman, J., Proněk, D., Hejtmanková, A., Dudjak, J., Pivec, V., Faitová, K. 2003. Total polyphenol and main flavonoid antioxidant in different onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties. Horticultural Science, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 142-147. https://doi.org/10.17221/3876-hortsci

Lenková, M., Bystrická, J., Chlebo, P., Kovarovič, J. 2018. Garlic (Allium sativum L.)–the content of bioactive compounds. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 405-412. https://doi.org/10.5219/830

Lenková, M., Bystrická, J., Hrstková, M. 2016. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium. Journal of Central European Agriculture, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 1199-1133. http://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/17.4.1820

Lenková, M., Bystrická, J., Vollmannová, A., Tóth, T., Kovarovič, J. 2017. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 65-70. https://doi.org/10.5219/830

Locatelli, D. A., Nazareno, M. A., Fusari, C. M., Camargo, A. B. 2017. Cooked garlic and antioxidant activity: Correlation with organosulfur compound composition. Food chemistry, vol. 220, p. 219-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.001

Lorigooini, Z., Kobarfard, F., Ayatollahi, S. A. 2014. Anti-platelet aggregation assay and chemical composition of essential oil from Allium atroviolaceum Boiss growing in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), vol. 5, no. 2, p. 151-156. https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/5.2.151-156

Losada-Barreiro, S., Bravo-Díaz, C. 2017. Free radicals and polyphenols: The redox chemistry of neurodegenerative diseases. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 133, p. 379-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.03.061

Lu, X., Ross, C. F., Powers, J. R., Aston, D. E., Rasco, B. A. 2011. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, vol. 59, no. 10, p. 5215-5221. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf201254f

Micová, M., Urminská, D., Bystrická, J., Kovarovič, J., Harangozo, Ľ. 2019. The influence of variety on the content of bioactive compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences,vol. 8, no. 4, p. 1076-1079. https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2019.8.4.1076-1079

Najman, K., Sadowska, A., Hallmann, E. 2020 Influence of Thermal Processing on the Bioactive, Antioxidant, and Physicochemical Properties of Conventional and Organic Agriculture Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Applied Science, vol. 10, no. 23, p. 8638. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238638

Nencini, C., Menchiari, A., Franchi, G. G. 2011. In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Aged Extracts of some Italian Allium Species. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 66, p. 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-010-0204-2

Park, M. H., Kim, J. G. 2015. Low-dose UV-C irradiation reduces the microbial population and preserves antioxidant levels in peeled garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 100, p. 109-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.09.013

Pedersen, C. B., Kyle, J., Jenkinson, A., Gardner, P. T., McPhail, D. B., Duthie, G. G. 2000. Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 5, p. 405-408. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600972

Petropoulos, S. A., Fernandes, Â., Ntatsi, G., Petrotos, K., Barros, L., Ferreira, I. C. 2018. Nutritional value, chemical characterization and bulb morphology of Greek garlic landraces. Molecules, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 319. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020319

Poojary, M. M., Putnik, P., Kovačević, D. B., Barba, F. J., Lorenzo, J. M., Dias, D. A., Shpigelman, A. 2017. Stability and extraction of bioactive sulfur compounds from Allium genus processed by traditional and innovative technologies. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 61, p. 28-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.04.007

Priecina, L., Karlina, D. 2013. Total Polyphenol, Flavonoid Content And Antiradical Activity Of Celery, Dill, Parsley, Onion And Garlic Dried Conventive And Microwave-Vacuum Dryers. International Conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences, vol. 5, p. 107-112. Available at: http://www.ipcbee.com/vol53/021-ICNFS2013-F2008.pdf.

Putnik, P., Gabrić, D., Roohinejad, S., Barba, F. J., Granato, D., Mallikarjunan, K., Kovačević, D. B. 2019. An overview of organosulfur compounds from Allium spp.: From processing and preservation to evaluation of their bioavailability, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Food Chemistry, vol. 276, p. 680-691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.068

Rasouli, H., Farzaei, M. H., Khodarahmi, R. 2017. Polyphenols and their benefits: A review. International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 1700-1741. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1354017

Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., Rice-Evans, C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 26, no. 9-10, p. 1231-1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0891-5849(98)00315-3

RStudio. 2020. RStudio: Integrated Development for R. Boston, MA, USA : RStudio, Inc.

Škrovánková, S., Mlček, J., Snopek, L., Planetová, T. 2018. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in different types of garlic. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no.1, p. 267-272. https://doi.org/10.5219/895

Soto, V. C., González, R. E., Sance, M. M., Galmarini, C. R. 2015. Organosulfur and phenolic content of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) and its relationship with antioxidant activity. VII International Symposium on Edible Alliaceae, vol. 1143, p. 277-290. https://doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2016.1143.39

Srivastava, M. P., Tiwari, R., Sharma, N. 2013. Assessment of phenol and flavonoid content in the plant materials. Journal on New Biological Reports, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 163-166. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/253875

Suleria, H. A. R., Butt, M. S., Khalid, N., Sultan, S., Raza, A., Aleem, M., Abbas, M. 2015. Garlic (Allium sativum): diet based therapy of 21st century–a review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2222-1808(14)60782-9

Szychowski, K. A., Rybczynska-Tkaczyk, K., Gawel-Beben, K., Swieca, M., Karas, M., Jakuczyk, A., Gminski, J. 2018. Characterization of active compounds of different garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 68, no. 1, p. 73-81. https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-2017-0005

Zhou, L., Guo, X., Bi, J., Yi, J., Chen, Q., Wu, X., Zhou, M. 2017. Drying of garlic slices (Allium sativum L.) and its effect on thiosulfinates, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during infrared drying. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 41, no. 1, p. e12734. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12734

Published

2021-10-28

How to Cite

Čeryová, N., Čičová, I., Lidiková, J., Šnirc, M., Horváthová, J., Lichtnerová, H., & Franková, H. (2021). The content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 1104–1111. https://doi.org/10.5219/1694

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>