Quality and safety of raw cow’s milk in Slovakia in 2011
Keywords:raw cow`s milk, total bacterial count, somatic cell count, fat, protein, solid not fat, freezing point, drug residue
The quality and safety of raw cow’s milk is very important for dairy companies and consumers of milk products. Due to the methods of production, it is impossible to completely eliminate contamination of milk with microorganisms, therefore the microbial content of milk is a major feature in determining its quality. Other important factors to consider include somatic cells count, veterinary drug residues, milk composition and freezing point. Somatic cells represent the udder health and can be used for monitoring of subclinical mastitis. A high level of somatic cells can increase proteolysis in milk which affects technological processes. Veterinary drugs administered to cows may lead to residues in the milk which are harmful to humans. The content of fat, protein and solids-non-fat are the main indicators used by dairies for technological purposes. In this article we discuss the quality and safety of raw cow’s milk in Slovakia during 2011. We found that 73.53% of samples tested for somatic cell count, and 84.54% of samples tested for total bacterial count, met the European Union legislation limits. We found the largest decrease in fat and protein content was during the summer period and the largest increase was in the winter period. We found that 92.14 %, 98.7% and 91.38% of samples met the limit presented in STN 570529:1999 for fat content, protein content and freezing point respectively. The percentage of drug positive samples was 0.087%.
ADESIYUN, A. A., WEBB AND, L., RAHMAN, S. 1995. Microbiological quality of raw cow milk at collection centers in Trinidad. In J. Food Prod., vol. 58, 1993, p. 139-146.
ATARO, A., MCCRINDLE, R. I., BOTHA, B. M., MCCRINDLE, C. M. E., NDIBEWU, P. P. 2008. Quantification of trace elements in raw cow’s milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In Food Chemistry, vol. 111, 2008, no. 1, p. 243-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.056
AULDIST, M. J., WALSH, B. J., THOMSON, N. A. 1998. Seasonal and lactational influences on bovine milk composition in New Zealand. In J. Dairy Res., vol. 65, 1998, p. 401-411. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029998002970 PMid:9718493
BARBANO, D. M., MA, Y., SANTOS, M. V. 2006. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life. In J. Dairy Sci., vol. 89, 2006, p. E15-E19. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72360-8 PMiD:16527874
BARBANO, D. M., RASMUSSEN, R. R., LYNCH, J. M. 1991. Influence of milk somatic cell count and milk age on cheese yield. In J. Dairy Sci., vol. 74, 1991, p. 369-388. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78179-4
BERRY, D. P., O’BRIEN, B., O’CALLAGHAN, E. J., SULLIVAN, K. O., MEANEY, W. J. 2006. Temporal Trends in Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count and Total Bacterial Count in Irish Dairy Herds During the Past Decade. In J. Dairy Sci. vol. 89, 2006, p. 4083-4093. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72453-5 PMiD:16960086
BRYAN, F. L. 1983. Epidemiology of milk-borne diseases. In J. Food Prot., vol. 46, 1983, p. 637-649.
BUJKO, J., KOCMAN, R., ŽITNÝ, J., TRAKOVICKÁ, A. HRNČÁR, C. 2011. Analyse of traits of milk production in dairy cows. In Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, 2011, no. 1, p. 5-9. https://doi.org/10.5219/93
CHANDAN, R. C., KILARA, A., SHAN, N. P. 2008. Dairy Processing and Quality Assurance, AMES, IOWA, USA : Wiley-Blackwell, 2008, 329 p. ISBN 0-8138-2756-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780813804033 PMid:19240300
COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1662/2006 of 6 November 2006 amending Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin OJ L 320, 18.11.2006, p. 1-10.
COOREVITS, A., DE JONGHE, V., VANDROEMME, J., REEKMANS, R., HEYRMAN, J., MESSENS, W., DE VOS, P., HEYNDRICKX, M. 2008. Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic-spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms system. In Appl. Microbiol., vol. 31, 2008, no. 2, p. 126-140. doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2008.03.002 PMiD:1840609
DĂNUŢ M., G., ANDRONOIU, D. G., NISTOR, O. V., BOTEZ, E. 2011. Quality control of raw cow milk from Galati county. In Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, vol. 17, 2011, no. 3, p. 303-307.
DUDRIKOVÁ, E., POĽAKOVÁ, L. PUKÁČOVÁ, J. 2010. Health and hygienic conditions of ewe`s milk processing from the aspect of food safety. In Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, 2010, no. 3, p. 14-18. https://doi.org/10.5219/24
FABIANOVÁ, J., DUCKOVÁ, V., ČANIGOVÁ, M., KROČKO, M. 2011. Presence of Enterococci in cow milk and their antibiotic resistance. In Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, 2010, no. 2, p. 17-21. https://doi.org/10.5219/45
FILIPEJOVÁ, T., KOVÁČIK, J. KIRCHNEROVÁ, K. FOLTÝS, V. 2011. Changes in milk composition as a result of metabolic disorders of dairy cows. In Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, 2011, no. 1, p. 10-16. https://doi.org/10.5219/113
FOX, P. F., MC SWEENEY, P. L. H. 1998. Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry. London, UK : Blackie Academic and Professional, 1998, 479 p. ISBN 0-412-72000-0.
GOBBETTI, M., MINERVINI, F., RIZZELLO, C. G. 2007. Bioactive peptides in dairy products. In: HUI, Y. H. et al., 2007 Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ, USA : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 489-517. ISBN 978-0-470-04964-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470113554.ch70
GUNASEKERA, T. S., VEAL, D. A., ATTFIELD, P. V. 2003. Potential for broad applications of flow cytometry and fluorescence techniques in microbiological and somatic cell analyses of milk. In International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 85, 2003, p. 269-279. doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00546-9 PMiD:12878385
HEADRICK, M. L., KORANGY, S., BEAN, N. H., ANGULO, F. J., ALTEKRUSE, S. F., POTTER, M. E., KLONTZ, K. C. 1998. The epidemiology of raw milk associated food borne disease out breaks reported in the United States, 1973 through 1992. In Am. J. Public Health, vol. 88, 1998, p. 1219-1221. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.8.1219
HECK, J. M. L., VAN VALENBERG, H. J. F., DIJKSTRA, J., VAN HOOIJDONK, A. C. M. 2009. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition. In Journal of Dairy Science. vol. 92, 2009, no. 10, p. 4745-4755. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2146 PMiD:19762790
HETTINGA, K. A., VAN VALENBERG, H. J. F, VAN HOOIJDONK, A. C. M. 2008. Quality control of raw cows` milk by headspace analysis. In International Dairy Journal, vol. 18, 2008, no. 5, p. 506-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.10.005
HOGAN, J. 2005. Human health risks associated with high BTSCC milk: Symposium overview. Pages 73-75 in Proc. 44th NMC Annu. Mtg. Natl. Mastitis Counc. Inc., Verona, WI.
HUI, Y. H. 1993. Dairy Science and Technology Handbook, New York : John Wiley & Sons, 1993, 329 p. ISBN 1-56081-078-5.
JANŠTOVÁ, B., DRAČKOVÁ, M., DLESKOVÁ, K., CUPÁKOVÁ, Š., NECIDOVÁ, L., NAVRÁTILOVÁ, P., VORLOVÁ, L. 2011. Quality of raw milk from a farm with automatic milking system in the Czech Republic. In Acta Vet. Brno, vol. 80, 2011, p. 207-214. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201180020207
JAYARAO, B. M., HENNING, D. R. 2001. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk. In J. Dairy Sci., vol. 84, 2001, p. 2157-2162. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74661-9 PMiD:11699446
KITCHEN, B. J. 1981. Review of the progress of dairy science: Bovine mastitis: Milk compositional changes and related diagnostic tests. In J. Dairy Res., vol. 48, 1981, p. 167-188. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900021580 PMiD:7021617
KORHONEN, H., PIHLANTO-LEPPÄLÄ, A. 2004. Milk – derived bioactive peptides: Formation and prospects for health promotion. In: SHORTT, C., O’BRIEN, J. 2004. Handbook of Functional Dairy Products. Boca Raton, FL, USA : CRC Press, 2004, p. 109-124. doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-227235-8/00327-8
LINDMARK-MÅNSSON, H., FONDÉN, R., PETTERSSON, H. E. 2003. Composition of Swedish dairy milk. In Int. Dairy J., vol. 13, 2003, p. 409-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00032-3
LOCK, A. L., GARNSWORTHY, P. C. 2003. Seasonal variation in milk conjugated linoleic acid and delta(9)-desaturase activity in dairy cows. In Livest. Prod. Sci., vol. 79, 2003, p. 47-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00118-5
MA, Y., RYAN, C., BARBANO, D. M., GALTON, D. M., RUDAN, M. A., BOOR, K. J. 2000. Effects of somatic cell count on quality and shelf-life of pasteurized fluid milk. In J. Dairy Sci., vol. 83, 2000, p. 264-274. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74873-9 PMiD:10714859
MUIR, D. D. 1996. Shelf-life of dairy products: 2. Raw milk and fresh products. In Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, vol. 49, 1996, p. 44-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.1996.tb02487.x
MUNRO, G. L., GRIEVE, P. A., KITCHEN, B. J. 1984. Effects of mastitis on milk yield, milk composition, processing properties and yield and quality of milk products. In Aust. J. Dairy Technol., vol. 39, 1984, p. 7-16.
PARK, Y. W. 2009. Overview of Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products. In: Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products. Iowa, USA : Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, p. 3-12. ISBN 978-0-8138-1982-2. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780813821504.ch1
POĽÁKOVÁ, L., DUDRIKOVÁ, E., GALLO, J. 2011. Presence of S. aureus and Enterococcus spp. in goat`s cheese and their antibiotics resistance. In Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, 2011, no 3, p. 33-37. https://doi.org/10.5219/144
PUKÁČOVÁ, J., POĽAKOVÁ, L., DUDRIKOVÁ, E. 2010. Sensitivity to antibiotics in strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow`s milk. In Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, 2010, no. 4, p. 56-64. https://doi.org/10.5219/21
RUEGG, P. L., TABONE, T. J. 2000. The relationship between antibiotic residue violations and somatic cell counts in Wisconsin dairy herds. In J. Dairy Sci., vol. 83, 2000, p. 2805-2809. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75178-2 PMiD:11132850
SAVILLE, W. J., WITTUM, T. E., SMITH, K. L. 2000. Association between measures of milk quality and risk of violative antimicrobial residues in grade-A raw milk. In J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., vol. 217, 2000, p. 541-545. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2000.217.541 PMid:10953720
SØRHAUG, T., STEPANIAK, L. 1997. Psychrotrophs and their enzymes in milk and dairy products quality aspects. In Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 8, 1997, p. 35- 41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01006-6
STEELE, M. L., MCNAB, W. B., POPPE, C., GRAFFITHS, M. W., CHEN, S., DEGRANDIS, S. A., FRUHNER, L. C., LARKIN, C. A., LYNCH J. A., ODUMERU, J. A. 1997. Survey of Ontario bulk tank milk for food borne pathogens. In J. Food Prot., vol. 60, 1997, p. 1341-1346.
STN 570529:1999 Raw cow's milk to dairy processing and treatment.
STRALEY, B. A., DONALDSON, S. C., HEDGE, N. V., SAWANT, A. A., SRINIVASAN, V., OLIVER, S. P., JAYARAO, B. M. 2006. Public health significance of antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria in raw bulk tank milk. In Foodborne Pathog. Dis., vol. 3, 2006, p. 222-233. https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2006.3.222
TAMIME, A. Y. 2009. Milk Processing and Quality management. Chichester, UK : John Wiley & Sons in Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2009. 316 p. ISBN 978-1-4051-4530-5.
ZIGO, F., VASIĽ, M., KADÁŠI, M., ELEČKO, J., FARKAŠOVÁ, Z. 2011. Bacteria Staphylococcus spp. izolated from mastitis of sheep their enterotoxigenic properties. In Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, 2011, p. 70-72. https://doi.org/10.5219/171
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).