Exposure and risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus in food chain in Slovakia
Keywords:S. aureus, exposure assessment, risk characterization
AbstractFoods can been contaminated by S. aureus usually as a result of unhygienic behaviour of staff or improper conducted technological procedures. Compared to saprophytic bacteria, S. aureus does not possess significant competitive properties; however its epidemiological potential consists in multiplication to density higher than 106 cfu/g and formation of heat-resistant enterotoxins by which it causes food poisoning. Based on the data in 2001, the risk was characterized as follows: S. aureus is almost ubiquitous in ewes’ milk. It is likely that it can increase its numbers by more than 3 log cfu/g and exceed the densities from 105-106 cfu/g for a short period, particularly at farm conditions. It is unlikely that it can succeed in competition with active lactic acid bacteria when they are present in higher numbers in ewes’ milk. While exposure of S. aureus through consumption of lump ewes’ cheese made from raw milk is high, its consequences are mild and severity may be assessed as negligible. The overall risk is considered as low. A kind of confirmation provides the official incidence of staphylococcal poisoning which is 0.2 per 100,000 populations (lower than the EU average of 0.6/100,000).
Anonymous. 2012. Správa o zoonózach a pôvodcoch zoonóz v Slovenskej republike za r. 2011. Staphylococcus aureus (koagulázopozitívne stafylokoky a ich toxíny). Bratislava: MPRV SR, p. 84-87.
Balaban, N., Rasooly, A. 2000. Staphylococcal enterotoxins. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 1, p. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00377-9
Holečková, B., Holoda, E., Fotta, M., Kalináčová, V., Gondol, J., Grolmus, J. 2002. Occurence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in food. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, vol. 9, p. 179-182. PMid:12498587
Holečková, B., Kalináčová, V., Gondol, J., Fotta, M., Holoda, E., Beličková, E. 2004. Production of enterotoxins by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. The Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, vol. 48, p. 41-45.
Jay, J. M., Loessner, M. J., Golden, D. A. 2005. Modern Food Microbiology, 7 th. Ed. New York: Springer, p. 709 ISBN 0-387-23180-3.
EFSA, ECDPC 2012. Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2010. EFSA Journal, vol. 10 no. 3, 442 p. Retrieved from the web: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/ en/efsajournal/doc/2597.pdf
Kérouanton, A., Hennekinne, J. A., Letertre, C., Petit, L., Chesneau, O., Brisabois, A., DeBuyser, M.L. 2007. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 115, p. 36-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.10.050 PMid:17306397
Medveďová, A., Valík, Ľ., Sirotná, Z., Liptáková, D. 2009. Growth Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Milk: a Quantitative Approach. Czech Journal of Food Science, vol. 27, no. 6, p. 443-453.
Medveďová, A., Valík, Ľ. 2012. Structure and Function of Food Engineering. Staphylococcus aureus: Characterisation and Quantitative Growth Description in Milk and Artisanal Raw Milk Cheese Production, Ayman Amer Eissa, p. 71-102. ISBN: 978-953-51-0695-1.
Normanno, G., Firinu, A., Virgilio, S., Mula, G., Dambrosio, A., Poggiu, A., Decastelli, L., Mioni, R., Scuota, S., Bolzoni, G., Di Giannatale, E., Salinetti, A. P., La Salandra, G., Bartoli, M., Zuccon, F., Pirino, T., Sias, S., Parisi, A., Quaglia, N. C., Celano, G. V. 2005. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus in food products marketed in Italy. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 98, no. 1, p. 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.05.008 PMid:15617802
Notermans, S., Heuvelman, C. J. 1983. Combined effect of water activity, pH and sub-optimal temperature on growth and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Food Science, vol. 48, no. 6, p. 1832-1835. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb05096.x
Notermans, S., van Hoeij, K. 2008. The Food Safety File. Woerden: Food Doctors VOF. ISBN/EAN: 978-90-79327-02-7.
Valík, Ľ., Prachar, V. 2009. Pôvodcovia ochorení z požívatín a minimalizácia ich rizika. Bratislava: Nakladateľstvo STU, p. 167, ISBN 978-80-227-3200-0.
Vasiľ, M., Fotta, M., Elečko, J. 2007. Produkcia enterotoxínov druhom rodu Staphylococcus sp. izolovaných z ovčieho mlieka. Slovak Journal of Animal Science,vol. 40, no. 1, p. 52-56.
Vasiľ, M., Fotta, M., Elečko, J. 2005. Výskyt a druhová špecifikácia Staphylococcus sp. izolovaných z prvovýroby ovčieho mlieka. Mliekarstvo, vol. 36, no. 3, p. 25-27.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).