Detection and characterisation of Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from Eastern Slovakia revealed the presence of three main viral strains.
Keywords:Prunus, virus, RT-PCR, strain, diversity
Plum pox virus (PPV), the agent responsible for Sharka disease, is the most important viral pathogen of stone fruit trees world-wide, having an endemic status in Slovakia. To increase knowledge of PPV diversity in Slovakia, a set of 11 isolates, originated from the eastern part of the country, was characterised. The isolates were chip-budded from their original Prunus hosts to the susceptible GF305 indicators, exhibiting the symptoms of variable severity. A genomic region encompassing the partial NIb and the hypervariable 5´terminal region of the CP gene was amplified from all 11 isolates in RT-PCR and directly sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the grouping of the 11 Slovak isolates into 3 distinct clusters, representing the PPV-M (2 isolates), D (7 isolates) and Rec strains (2 isolates). The strain affiliation of isolates was further confirmed by strain-specific RT-PCR, using which the presence of additional mixed infection by minor PPV variants was detected in 2 samples. The results further contribute to the understanding of PPV diversity in Slovakia and confirm the specificity and sensitivity of molecular approaches used for the virus strain determination.
Cambra, M., Capote, N., Myrta, A., Llacer, G. 2006. Plum pox virus and the estimated costs associated with Sharka disease. EPPO Bulletin. vol. 36, no. 2, p. 202-204. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2006.01027.x
Candresse, T., Cambra, M., Dallot, S., Lanneau, M., Asensio, M., Gorris, M. T., Revers, F., Macquaire, G., Olmos, A., Boscia, D., Quiot, J. B. Dunez, J. 1998. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction assays for the typing of isolates belonging to the D and M serotypes of plum pox potyvirus. Phytopathology. vol. 88, no. 3, p. 198-204. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.19126.96.36.199 PMid: 18944965
Desbiez, C., Moury, B., Lecoq, H. 2011. The hallmarks of "green" viruses: Do plant viruses evolve differently from the others? Infection, Genet. and Evol. vol. 11, no. 5, p. 812-824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2011.02.020 PMid: 21382520
Garcia, J. A., Glasa, M., Cambra, M., Candresse, T. 2013. Plum pox virus and sharka: a model potyvirus and a major disease. Molecular Plant Pathology, in press, https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12083 PMid: 24102673
García, J. A. Cambra, M. 2007. Plum pox virus and sharka disease. Plant Viruses vol. 1, p. 69-79.
Glasa, M., Marie-Jeanne, V., Labonne, G., Šubr, Z., Kúdela, O., Quiot, J. B. 2002. A natural population of recombinant Plum pox virus is viable and competitive under field conditions. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. vol. 108, p. 843-853. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021294221878
Glasa, M., Matisová, J., Kúdela, O. 1998. Characterization of Plum pox virus isolates from Slovakia. Acta Virol. Vol. 42, no. 4, p. 226-229. PMid: 10073223
Glasa M., Predajňa, L., Šubr, Z. W. 2010. Competitiveness of different plum pox virus isolates in experimental mixed infection reveals rather isolate- than strain-specific behaviour. J. Plant Pathol. vol. 92, p. 267-271. https://doi.org/10.4454/jpp.v92i1.42
Glasa, M., Candresse, T. 2008. Plum Pox Virus. Encyclopedia of Virology, Third Edition, vol. 4, p. 238-242.
Glasa, M., Malinowski, T., Predajňa, L., Pupola, N., Dekena, D., Michalczuk, L., Candresse, T. 2011. Sequence variability, recombination analysis, and specific detection of the W strain of Plum pox virus. Phytopathology, vol. 101, no. 8, p. 980-985. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-12-10-0334 PMid: 21425932
Glasa, M., Matisová, J., Hričovský, I., Kúdela, O. 1997. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to Plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia. Acta Virol. vol. 41, p. 341-344. PMid: 9607094
Glasa, M., Palkovics, L., Komínek, P., Labonne, G., Pittnerová, S., Kúdela, O., Candresse, T., Šubr, Z. 2004. Geographically and temporally distant natural recombinant isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV) are genetically very similar and form a unique PPV subgroup. J. Gen. Virol. vol. 85, no. 9, p. 2671-2681. https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.80206-0 PMid: 15302961
Glasa, M., Prikhodko, Y., Predajna, L., Nagyova, A., Shneyder, Y., Zhivaeva, T., Subr, Z., Cambra, M., Candresse, T. 2013. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of Plum pox virus from the Volga basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus. Phytopathology. vol. 103, no. 9, p. 972-979. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-11-12-0285-R PMid: 23581702
Jarošová, J., Polák, J., Kumar, J 2008. Molecular detection of stone fruits virus methodology by RT-PCR and multiplex - RT-PCR (in Czech). Praha: Výzkumný ústav rostlinné výroby, v.v.i., p. 26. ISBN 978-80-87011-86-7.
Jridi, C., Martin, J. F., Marie-Jeanne, V., Labonne, G., Blanc, S. 2006. Distinct viral populations differentiate and evolve independently in a single perennial host plant. J. Virol. vol. 80, no. 5, p. 2349-2357. https://doi.org/10.1128/ JVI.80.5.2349-2357.2006 PMid: 16474141
Králiková, K. 1964. Survey on the investigation of plum pox disease in Slovakia. Plant Virology: 5th Conference of Czechoslovak Plant Virologists, p. 346-351.
Labonne, G., Yvon, M., Quiot, J. B., Avinent, L., Llacer, G. 1995. Aphids as potential vectors of Plum pox virus: comparison of methods of testing and epidemiological consequensec. Acta Hortic. vol. 386, p. 207-218.
López-Moya, J. J., Fernandez-Fernandez, M. R., Cambra, M., García, J.A. 2000. Biotechnological aspects of Plum pox virus. Journal of Biotechnology. vol. 76, no. 2-3, p. 121-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1656(99)00196-0
Mavrodieva, V., James, D., Williams, K., Negi, S., Varga, A., Mock, R., Levy, L. 2013. Molecular analysis of a Plum pox virus W isolate in plum germplasm hand carried into the USA from the Ukraine shows a close relationship to a Latvian isolate. Plant Disease. vol. 97, no. 1, p. 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0104-RE
Paulechová, K. 1981. Comparison of plum pox virus isolates from Czechoslovakia. Biologia vol. 36, p. 225-229.
Predajňa, L. 2013. Molekulárna diverzita a epidemiológia vírusu šarky slivky (PPV). Disertation theses, PriFUK Bratislava, p. 140.
Predajňa, L., Šubr, Z., Candresse, T., Glasa, M. 2012. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of Plum pox virus in a single plum tree. Virus Research. vol. 167, no. 1, p. 112-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2012.04.002 PMid: 22521553
Šubr, Z., Glasa, M. 2013. Unfolding the secrets of plum pox virus: from epidemiology to genomics. Acta Virol. vol. 57, no. 2, p. 217-228. https://doi.org/10.4149/av_2013_02_217 PMid: 23600878
Šubr, Z., Glasa, M. 1999. Plum pox virus capsid protein mobility in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Acta Virol. vol. 43, no. 4, p. 259-262. PMid: 10749373
Šubr, Z., Pittnerová, S., Glasa, M. 2004. A simplified RT-PCR-based detection of recombinant Plum pox virus isolates. Acta Virol. vol. 48, no. 3, p. 173-176. PMid: 15595211
Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M., Kumar, S. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution. vol. 28, no. 10, p. 2731-2739. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121 PMid: 21546353
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).