Comparison of the carbohydrate content in apples and carrots grown in organic and integrated farming systems
Keywords:fructose, glucose, sucrose, dry matter, organic farming
The aim of this study was to compare some quality parameters of apples and carrots from organic and integrated farming systems. In addition, the cultivars of carrots were grown in two plant densities (600 or 900 thousand plants per hectare). The fructose, glucose, saccharose and dry matter content of seven apple cultivars (Florina, Zvonkové, Topaz, Šampion, Ontario, Melrose and Idared) and two carrot cultivars (Afalon F1 and Cortina F1) were analysed by HPLC and gravimetric methods, respectively. Significant differences were found between organic and integrated apple samples. The interactions between cultivars and farming methods were also significant (p <0.0001). The dry matter and sugar level tendencies were not the same for all apple cultivars. Conversely, more consistent data were obtained for the two carrot cultivars. The bio carrots of both cultivars showed significantly lower dry matter content (p = 0.0004) and higher carbohydrate content (pfructose = 0.0303, pglucose = 0.0003, psucrose = 0.0083) than the samples from integrated production. Other factors like cultivar and plant density also played an important role in sugar content in carrots. Different densities of plants significantly affected the glucose content (p = 0.0373). Cultivar Aftalon F1 showed higher concentration of monosaccharides compared to Cortina F1 (pfructose = 0.0001 and pglucose <0.0001).
Bavec, M., Turinek, M., Grobelnik-Mlakar, S., Slatnar, A., Bavec, F. 2010. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 22, p. 11825-11831. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf103085p PMid: 20964342
Bertazza, G., Cristoferi, G., Bignami, C. 2010. Fruit Composition and Quality of Organically and Conventionally Grown Apple, Apricot and Pear in the Veneto Region (Northern Italy). International Society of Horticultural Science, Acta Horticulturae vol. 873. Organic Fruit Conference, p. 309-316. ISSN: 0567-7572. [cit. 2014-06-09] Retrieved from the web: http://www.actahort.org/books/873/873_35.htm
Bordeleau, G., Myers-Smith, I., Midak, M., Szeremeta, A. 2002. Food quality: a comparison of organic and conventional fruits and vegetables: dissertation theses. Frederiksberg, NL: Den Kongelige Veterinoer-og Landbohøjskole. 81 p.
[cit. 2014-06-09] Available at: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/clc/1744249
Bufler, G. 2013. Accumulation and degradation of starch in carrot roots. Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 150, p. 251-258. htp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.11.022
Cefola, M., Pace, B., Renna, M., Santamaria, P., Signore, A., Serio, F. 2012. Compositional analysis and antioxidant profile of yellow, orange and purple Polignano carrots. Italian Journal of Food Science, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 284-291. [cit. 2014-06-09] Retrieved from the web: file:///C:/Users/Lubo%C5%A1/Downloads/PACE%20ET%20AL.-IJFS.pdf
Clarková, N. 2000. Sportovní výživa (Sports nutrition). 1st ed. Praha, CZ: Grada Publishing. 266 p. ISBN: 80-247-9047-5.
Hogstad, S., Risvik, E., Steinsholt, K. 1997. Sensory quality and chemical composition in carrots: A multivariate study. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B-Soil and Plant Science, vol. 47, no. 4, p. 253-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064719709362469
Kopec, K. 1998. Tabulky nutričních hodnot ovoce a zeleniny (Tables of nutritional values of fruit and vegetables). 1st ed. Praha, CZ: ÚZPI. 72 p. ISBN 80-86153-64-9.
Kourimska, L., Panovska, Z., Legarova, V., Pacakova, Z. 2013. Correlation of sensory and physicochemical properties of selected apple cultivars. Acta Alimentaria, vol. 42, no. 2, p. 208-219. https://doi.org/10.1556/AAlim.42.2013.2.8
Ma, C. M., Sun, Z., Chen, C. B., Zhang, L. L., Zhu, S. H. 2014. Simultaneous separation and determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits by HPLC-ELSD. Food Chemistry, vol. 145, p. 784-788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.08.135
Magkos, F., Arvaniti, F., Zampelas, A. 2003. Organic food: nutritious food or food for thought? A review of the evidence. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 5, p. 357-371. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480120092071
Nagy, P. T., Nyeki, J., Szabo, Z. 2012. Are Organic Apples Really Healthier? In Mourao, I., Aksoy, U. XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on Organic Horticulture: Productivity and Sustainability Book Series: Acta Horticulturae, vol. 933. Leuven, BE: International Society of Horticultural Science, p. 607-611. ISBN: 978-90-66051-39-3.
Nour, V., Trandafir, I., Ionica, M. E. 2010. Compositional Characteristics of Fruits of several Apple (Malus domestica Borkh) Cultivars. Notulea Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 228-233. [cit. 2014-06-09] Retrieved from the web: http://www.notulaebotanicae.ro/index.php/nbha/article/viewFile/4762/5097
Prugar, J. 2000. Kvalita rostlinných produktů ekologického zemědělství (Quality of plant products from organic agriculture). 1st ed. Praha, CZ: ÚZPI. 80 p. ISBN 80-7271-048-6.
Rembiałkowska, E. 2007. Quality of plant products from organic agriculture. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 87, no. 15, p. 2757-2762. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3000
Róth, E., Berna, A., Beullens, K., Yarramraju, S., Lammertyn, J., Schenk, A., Nicolai, B. 2007. Postharvest quality of integrated and organically produced apple fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 11-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.01.006
Seljasen, R., Kristensen, H. L., Lauridsen, C., Wyss, G. S., Kretzschmar, U., Birlouez-Aragone, I., Kahl, J. 2013. Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 93, no. 11, p. 2611-2626. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6189
Soria, A. C., Sanz, M. L., Villamiel, M. 2009. Determination of minor carbohydrates in carrot (Daucus carota L.) by GC-MS. Food Chemistry, vol. 114, no. 2, p. 758-762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.10.060
Suni, M., Nyman, M., Eriksson, N. A., Björk, L., Björck, I. 2000. Carbohydrate composition and content of organic acids in fresh and stored apples. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 80, no. 10, p. 1538-1544. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0010(200008)80:10<1538::AID-JSFA678>3.0.CO;2-A
Vogel, G. 1996. Handbuch des speziellen Gemüsebaues. 1st ed. Stuttgart, D: Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co. 1127 p. ISBN: 3-8001-5285-1.
Weibel, F. P., Bickel, R., Leuthold, S., Alföldi, T. 2000. Are organically grown apples tastier and healthier? A comparative field study using conventional and alternative methods to measure fruit quality. Herregods M. Acta Horticulturae, vol. 517. Bruxelles, BE: ISHS, p. 417-426. [cit. 2014-06-09] Available at: http://orgprints.org/14536/1/35_Weibel_185_195.pdf.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).