The content of mercury in various types of cereals that were grown in the model conditions
Keywords:cereals, plants, mercury, heavy metals
The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates throught the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Mercury affects CNS and causes its disorders. The high doses of mercury causes a lot of different changes of personality as well as increased agitation, memory lossorinsomnia. It can also affect other organ systems such as the kidney. The exposure level is reflected in the concentration of mercury in blood and urine. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added atvarious doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly copperand mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L.) variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L.) variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of mercury by seed follows wheat ˂ barley ˂ oat. Even though that the oat is characterized by the highest accumulation of mercuryin the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level sspecified by The Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by mercury, that the high content of mercury in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.
Act No. 220/2004 Coll. Of Laws of Slovak Republic. On the conservation and use of agricul- tural land, amending the Act No. 245/2003 Coll. on integrated pollution prevention and control, amending and supplementing of certain acts, as amended.
Act No. 188/2003 Coll. Of Laws of Slovak Republic. about application of sewage sludge and bottom sediments into soil and completing of Law No. 223/2001 Collection of Laws about wastes and changes and completing of some laws as amended of later Acts.
Alldrick, A. J. 2012. Chemical contamination of cereals. Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food. Campden BRI, UK. p. 421-446. ISBN: 978-0-85709-058-4 https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857095794.3.421
Árvay, J., Tomáš, J., Hauptvogl, M., Kopernická, M., Kováčik, A., Bajčan, D., Massányi, P. 2014. Contamination of wild-grown edible mushrooms by heavy metals in a former mercury mining area. Journal Environ. Sci.
Health pt. B., vol. 49, no. 11, p. 815-827. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2014.938550
Árvay, J., Tomáš, J., Hauptvogl, M., Massányi, P., Harangozo, Ľ., Tóth, T., Stanovič, R., Bryndzová, Š., Bumbalová, M. 2015. Human exposure to heavy metals and possible public health risks via consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia. Journal Environ. Sci. Health pt. B., vol. 50, p. 838-848. PMid:26357894
Árvay, J., Stanovič, R., Bajčan, D., Slávik, M., Miššík, J. 2013. Content of heavy metals in soil and cropfrom middle Spiš area. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, vol. 2, p. 1988-1996.
Bajčan, D., Lahučký, L., Tóth, T., Tomáš, J., Árvay, J. 2010. Evaluation of the mercury content in agricultural products from the Hont region. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, special issue, p. 258-263. Available at: http://www.potravinarstvo.com/dokumenty/mc_februar_2010/pdf/3/Bajcan.pdf
Bernhoft, R. A. 2012. Mercury Toxicity and Treatment: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2012, article ID 460508, 10 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/460508
Beverly, R. L. 2014. Safetyof Food and Beverages: Cereals and Derived Products. Encyclopedia of Food Safety, vol. 3 Foods, Materials, Technologies and Risks, p. 309-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-378612-8.00287-0
Cimboláková, I., Nováková, J. 2009. Heavy metals - the important element of the food chain. Potravinarstvo, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 14-16.
Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic Potravinový kódex SR 2006 Výnos č.18558/2006-SL Available at: http://www.svps.sk/legislativa/legislativa_kodex.asp
Duchoňová, L., Šturdík, E. 2010. Cereals as basis of preventing nutrition agains tobesity. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 6-15.https://doi.org/10.5219/76
Grandjean, P., Satoh H., Murata K., Eto, K. 2010. Adverse effects of methylmercury: environmental health research implications. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 118, no. 8, p. 1137-1145. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901757
Charlesworth, S., DeMiguel, E., Ordonez, A. 2011. A review of the distribution of particulate trace elements in urban terrestrial environments and its application to considerations of risk. Environ Geo chem Health, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 103-123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9325-7
Kippler, M., Tofail, F., Hamadani, J. D., Gardner, R. M., Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Bottai, M., Vahter, M. 2012. Early-life cadmium exposure and child development in 5-year-old girls and boys: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh. Environ. Health Perspect., vol. 120, no. 10, p. 1462-1468R. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104431
Koutinas, A. A., Du. C, Lin. C. S. K., Webb C. 2014. Developments in cereal-basedbiorefineries. Biomass and Waste Supply Chain Exploitation, vol. 2014, p. 303-334. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857097385.1.303
McKelvey, W., Jeffery, N., Clark, N., Kass, D., Parsons, P. 2011. Population-based in organic mercury biomonitoring and the identification of skin care products as a source ofexposure in New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 119, no. 2, p. 203-209. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002396
Melo, K. Gellein, L. Evje, T. Syversen. 2008. Minerals and trace elements in commercial infant food. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 10, p. 3339-3342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.08.007
Patel, S. 2015. Cereal bran fortified-functional foods for obesity and diabetes management: Triumphs, hurdles and possibilities. Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 14, no. 24, p. 255-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.02.010
Patra, M., Sharma, A. 2000. Mercury toxicity in plants. Botanical Review, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 379-422. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02868923
Samešová, D. 2012. Ťažké kovy v čistiarenských kaloch (Heavy metals in sewage sludge). Životné prostredie, vol. 46, no. 5, p. 232-236.
Serna Saldivar, S. O. 2016. Encyclopedia of Food and Health. p. 718-723, ISBN: 978-0-12-384953-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00128-8
Finch, H. J. S., Samuel, A. M., Lane, G. P. F. 2014. Lockhart & Wiseman's Crop Husbandry Including Grassland, 13 Cereal, 9th ed., p. 287-336. https://doi.org/10.1533/9781782423928.3.287
Streets, D. G., Devane, M. K., Lu, Z., Bond, T. C., Sunderland, E. M., Jacob, D. J. 2011. All-time releases of mercury to the atmosphere from human activities. Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 45, no. 24, p. 10485-10491. https://doi.org/10.1021/es202765m
Šabo, T. 2013. The content of cadmium, lead and mercury in the grain cereals growing in region of central Spiš. Thesis, Nitra, SPU. 75 p.
Toman, R., Massányi, P., Ducsay, L. 2000. Kadmium - kontaminant potravového reťazca človeka. Cudzorodé látky v životnom prostredí (Cadmium - contaminant of human food chain.) Xenobiotics in environmental, Nitra. SPU, p. 208-212, ISBN 80-7137-745-7.
Tomáš, J., Árvay, J., Tóth, T. 2012. Heavymetals in productive parts of agricultural plants. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, vol. 1, p. 819-827.
Tomáš, J., Árvay, J., Tóth, T., Vollmannová, A., Kopernická, M., Slávik, M. 2014. The level of crop plants contamination by heavy metals from the historical minesarea. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, vol. 3, p. 294-297.
Tóth, T., Andreji, J., Tóth, J., Slávik, M., Árvay, J., Stanovič, R. 2012. Cadmium, lead and mercurycontents in fishes - case study. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences., vol. 1, p. 837-847.
Verspreeta J., Dorneza E., Endeb W. V. D., Delcoura J. A., Courtina Ch. M. 2015. Cereal grainf ructans: Structure, variability and potential health effects. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 43, p. 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.01.006
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).