Influence of different curing methods on the fatty acid composition in sausages prepared from red deer meat
Keywords:red deer, fatty acids composition, curing
These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The effect of using two different curing agents (sodium chloride and nitrate) on fatty acid compounds in dry-cured deer meat was investigated in our study. The concentration of free fatty acids in the fat depends on the hydrolytic activity of the lipases, the microbial metabolic processes, and the oxidative reactions that work on the free fatty acids released in the lipolysis. The main identified fatty acids in all different types of curing were palmitic acid (16 : 0), oleic acid (c18 : 1 cis-9), stearic acid (C18 : 0). The resulting n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in the muscle samples of red deer showed no variation in different types of curing and was beneficially low within the range of 3.9 : 1 and 4.49 : 1. Total free fatty acids, whether saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not increased (p >0.05) greatly through the processing of dry-cured deer meat. Also there was no effect of curing method on fatty acids composition in two different muscles Semitendinosus muscle (ANOVA, p >0.05, F - 0.003, F crit. - 3.041) and Triceps brachii muscle (ANOVA, p >0.05, F - 0.05, F crit. - 3.01). There were found no significant (p >0.05) differences between fatty acids content in sausages prepared by brining in NaCl and Nitrate salt. The present study revealed that game meat can function as a good source of bioactive compounds that are essential for human nutrition.
Alford, J. A., Smith, J. L., Lilly, H. D. 1971. Relationship of Microbial Activity to Changes in Lipids of Foods. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 133-146. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1971.tb02273.x.
Barry, T. N., Wilson, P. R. 1994. Venison production from farmed deer. The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 123, no. 2, p. 159. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0021859600068416
Belej, Ľ., Barnová, M., Maršálková, L., Golian, J. 2011. The yield of DNA in thermal terated deer meat. Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 6-10. https://doi.org/10.5219/153
Bertolini, R., Zgrablic, G., Cuffolo, E. 2005. Wild Game Meat: Products, Market, Legislation and Processing Controls. Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 29, no. S2, p. 97-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-005-0029-x
Caneque, V. 2004. Carcass and meat quality of light lambs using principal component analysis. Meat Science, vol. 67, no. 4, p. 595-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.01.002
Corral, S., Salvador, A., Flores, M. 2013. Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds. Meat Science, vol. 93, no. 3, p. 776-785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.040
Cygan-Szczegielniak, D., Janicki, B. 2011. Influence of age and sex on the CLA and other fatty acids content in roe deer meat (Capreolus capreolus L.). Folia Biologica, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 19-24. https://doi.org/10.3409/fb59_1-2.19-24
Demeyer, D., Hoozee, J., Mesdom, H. 1974. Specificity of lipolysis during dry sausage ripening. Journal of Food Science, vol. 39, no. 2, p. 293-296. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1974.tb02878.x
Desmond, E. 2006. Reducing salt: A challenge for the meat industry. Meat Science, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 188-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.014
Franco, I., Martínez, A., Prieto, B., Carballo, J. 2002. Total and free fatty acids content during the ripening of artisan and industrially manufactured "Chorizo de cebolla". Grasas y Aceites, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 403-413. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2002.v53.i4.338
Franklin, I. R. 1980. Evolutionary change in small populations. Conservation biology: an evolutionaryecological perspective. In Soule´ M. E., Wilcox, B. A. (ed.); Sunderland (MA : Sinauer Associates). p. 135-149.
Gassara, F., Kouassi, A. P., Brar, S. K., Belkacemi, K. 2015. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 13, p. 2133-2148. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2013.812610
Gil, M., Guerrero, L., Sárraga, C. 1999. The effect of meat quality, salt and ageing time on biochemical parameters of dry-cured Longissimus dorsi muscle. Meat Science, vol. 51, no. 4, p. 329-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(98)00129-6
Gladwin, M. T., Schechter, A. N., Kim-Shapiro, D. B., Patel, R. P., Hogg, N., Shiva, S., Cannon, R. O., Kelm, M., Wink, D. A., Espey, M. G., Oldfield, E. H., Pluta, R. M., Freeman, B. A., Lancaster, J. R., Feelisch, M., Lundberg, J. O. 2005. The emerging biology of the nitrite anion. Nature Chemical Biology, vol. 1, no. 6, p. 308-314. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio1105-308
Hernández, P., Pla, M., Oliver, M. A., Blasco, A. 2000. Relationships between meat quality measurements in rabbits fed with three diets of different fat type and content. Meat Science, vol. 55, no. 4, p. 379-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(99)00163-1
Hoffman, L. C., Wiklund, E. 2006. Game and venison - meat for the modern consumer. Meat Science, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.005
Johansson, M., Belsito, E. L., Gioia, M. L., Leggio, A., Malagrinò, F., Romio, E., Siciliano, C., Tagarelli, A. 2015. GC/MS analysis of fatty acids in Italian dry fermented sausages. The Open Food Science Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 5-13. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874256401509010005
Krauss, R. M., Eckel, R. H., Howard, B., Appel, L. J., Daniels, S. R., Deckelbaum, R. J., Erdman, J. W., Kris-Etherton, P., Goldberg, I. J., Kotchen, T. A., Lichtenstein, A. H., Mitch, W. E., Mullis, R., Robinson, K., Wylie-Rosett, J., St. Jeor, S., Suttie, J., Tribble, D. L., Bazzarre, T. L. 2000. AHA Dietary Guidelines : Revision 2000: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation, vol. 102, no. 18, p. 2284-2299. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.102.18.2284
Laville, E., Martin, V., Bastien, O. 1996. Prediction of composition traits of young Charolais bull carcasses using a morphometric method. Meat Science, vol. 44, no. 1-2, p. 93-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(96)00087-3
Maršálková, L., Židek, R., Pokoradi, J., Golian, J., Belej, Ľ. 2014. Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations. Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 15-19. https://doi.org/10.5219/320
Paleari, M. A., Moretti, V. M., Beretta, G., Mentasti, T., Bersani, C. 2003. Cured products from different animal species. Meat Science, vol. 63, no. 4, p. 485-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(02)00108-0
Polak, T., Rajar, A., Gašperlin, L., Žlender, B. 2008. Cholesterol concentration and fatty acid profile of red deer (Cervus elaphus) meat. Meat Science, vol. 80, no. 3, p. 864-869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.04.005
Purchas, R. W., Triumf, E. C., Egelandsdal, B. 2010. Quality characteristics and composition of the longissimus muscle in the short-loin from male and female farmed red deer in New Zealand. Meat Science, vol. 86, no. 2, p. 505-510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.05.043
Ruiz, A. G., Mariscal, C., Soriano, A. 2007. Influence of hunting-season stage and ripening conditions on nitrogen fractions and degradation of myofibrillar proteins in venison (Cervus elaphus) chorizo sausages. Meat Science, vol. 76, no. 1, p. 74-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.10.015
Šnirc, M., Kral, M., Ošťádalová, M., Golian, J., Tremlová, B. 2016. Application of PCA method for characterization chemical, technological and textural parameters of farmed and pastured red deer. International Journal of Food Properties. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1180532
Soriano, A., Cruz, B., Gómez, L., Mariscal, C., García R. A. 2006. Proteolysis, physicochemical characteristics and free fatty acid composition of dry sausages made with deer (Cervus elaphus) or wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat: A preliminary study. Food Chemistry, vol. 96, no. 2, p. 173-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.02.019
Triumf, E. C., Purchas, R. W., Mielnik, M., Maehre, H. K., Elvevoll, E., Slinde, E., Egelandsdal, B. 2012. Composition and some quality characteristics of the longissimus muscle of reindeer in Norway compared to farmed New Zealand red deer. Meat Science, vol. 90, no. 1, p. 122-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.06.011
Vestergaard, C. S., Schivazappa, C., Virgili, R. 2000. Lipolysis in dry-cured ham maturation. Meat Science, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(99)00095-9
Vestergaard, C. S., Risum, J., Adler-Nissen, J. 2005. 23Na-MRI quantification of sodium and water mobility in pork during brine curing. Meat Science, vol. 69, no. 4, p. 663-672. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.11.001
Volpelli, L. A., Valusso, R., Morgante, M., Pittia, P., Piasentier, E. 2003. Meat quality in male fallow deer (Dama dama): effects of age and supplementary feeding. Meat Science, vol. 65, no. 1, p. 555-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(02)00248-6
Wang, J., Jin, G., Zhang, W., Ahn, D. U., Zhang, J. 2012, Effect of curing salt content on lipid oxidation and volatile flavour compounds of dry-cured turkey ham. LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 48, no. 1, p. 102-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.02.020
Warren, H. E., Scollan, N. D., Enser, M., Hughes, S. I., Richardson, R. I., Wood, J. D. 2008. Effects of breed and a concentrate or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages. I: Animal performance, carcass quality and muscle fatty acid composition. Meat Science, vol. 78, no. 3, p. 256-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.06.008
Wood, J. D., Richardson, R. I., Nute, G. R., Fisher, A. V., Campo, M. M., Kasapidou, E., Sheard, P. R., Enser, M. 2004. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review. Meat Science, vol. 66, no. 1, p. 21-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(03)00022-6
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).