Fungal diversity in the grapes-to-wines chain with emphasis on Penicillium species


  • Soňa Felšöciová Soňa Felšöciová, Department of Microbiology, Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra
  • Zuzana Mašková Zuzana Mašková, Department of Microbiology, Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra
  • Miroslava Kačániová Miroslava Kačániová, Department of Microbiology, Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra



wine grapes, must, wine, mycobiota, mycotoxin


The aim of this work was the description of surface and endogenous mycobiota colonisation of grapes, fresh grape juice, grape must, and wine primarily focused to the current spectrum of the penicillium species. One sample of white grape variety Palava and one sample of blue grape variety Dornfelder were collected in Small Carpathian wine growing region of Slovakia in the year 2017. Direct plating of grapes on agar plates was used for analysis of surface mycobiota of grapes while surface sterilsed grapes were used for endogenous mycobiota analysis. Mycobiota of juice, must, and wine was analysed by plate dilution method. Overall, we isolated 148 strains belonging to 13 genera of filamentous microscopic fungi and Mycelia sterilia from grape variety Palava, while the most frequent was Alternaria. Alternaria was the most common genus in the surface and endogenous colonisation with an average relative density 50% and 73.6%, respectively. A total of 2 species of Penicillium were detected from the grapes to wine, potentially toxigenic Penicillium expansum and P. chrysogenum. A total of 39 strains belonging to 6 genera and Mycelia sterilia were identified from grape variety Dornfelder. The most abundant genus was also Alternaria (51.3%), followed by Penicillium (12.8%). Alternaria was the most common genus in the surface and endogenous colonisation  and fresh grape juice with an average relative density from 20% (grape juice) to 71% (endogenous colonisation of grapes). A total of 3 species of Penicillium were detected from the grapes to wine, where Penicillium expansum were detected most commonly. In the second part of our work some selected isolates were tested to the ability to produce mycotoxins such as patulin, citrinin, and roquefortin C in in vitro condition by thin layer chromatography method. All tested  strains of Penicillium species were able to produce at least one mycotoxin. 


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How to Cite

Felšöciová, S. ., Mašková, Z. ., & Kačániová, M. . (2018). Fungal diversity in the grapes-to-wines chain with emphasis on Penicillium species. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 12(1), 379–386.

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