Comparing the quality of honey from beekeepers and honey from the market chain
Keywords:blossom honey, honeydew honey, adulteration, beekeeper, market chain
Honey is a valuable food for its beneficial nutritional and dietetic effects. The quality of honey fluctuates considerably according to various criteria, the adulteration of honey with cheaper substitutes is not negligible. The quality of honey in the market chain with honey taken from beekeepers was compared in this study. A total of 10 samples from each group were tested for basic qualitative markers and compared with legislative criteria. The samples were analysed for fructose and glucose content, water content, titratable acidity and two tests for illegal sugar additions. The results revealed the addition of 25% of the technical syrup in one sample of honey from the market chain, one sample had the sum of fructose and glucose 56,3%, it is below the required limit 60% (differed by 6,3%). In other parameters the samples complied with the valid legislation. All tested parameters in honey from beekeepers met the criteria of the legislation, only 1 sample of blossom honey had the sum of fructose and glucose just below the required limit. The sum of fructose and glucose in this sample was 58.3 %, it differed by 2.9% from the required content of 60%. Sensory analysis was used to assess four samples of honey from beekeepers collected by different techniques. Results have not shown significant difference in sensory properties between manually pressed honey and honey obtained after whirling. The responses characterizing the favourable sensory properties of the examined honey samples were prevailing. The difference between the perception of honey after whirling and honey harvested by press manually was not demonstrated in sensory properties.
Alvarez-Suarez, J. M., Gasparrini, M., Forbes-Hernández, T. Y., Mazzoni, L., Giampieri, F. 2014. The composition and biological activity of honey: a focus on Manuka honey. Foods. vol. 3, no. 3, p. 420-432. http://doi.org/10.3390/foods3030420
Alvarez-Suarez, J. M. 2017. Bee Products - Chemical and Biological Properties. Springer International Publishing AG, p. 306. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59689-1
Bogdanov, S., Lüllmann, C., Martin, P., von der Ohe, W., Russmann, H., Vorwohl, G., Oddo, L. P., Sabatini, A. G., Marcazzan, G. L., Piro, R., Flamini, Ch., Morlot, M., Lhéritier, J., Borneck, R., Marioleas, P., Tsigouri, A., Kerkvliet, J., Ortiz, A., Ivanov, T., D'Arcy, B., Mossel, B, Vit, P. 1999. Honey quality and international regulatory standards: review by the International Honey Commission. Bee World. vol. 80, no. 2, p. 61-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/0005772X.1999.11099428
Bogdanov, S. 2011. Functional and biological properties of the bee products: a review. Available at: www.bee-hexagon.net. Bee Product Science. Published 1. February 2011.
CAFIA. 2017: CAFIA Activity Report for 2016. [on-line] s.a. [cit. 2018-02-12]. Available at: http://www.szpi.gov.cz/clanek/zprava-o-cinnosti-szpi-za-rok-2016.aspx
Codex Alimentarius. 1994. Codex Standard for Honey, Codex Stan 12-1981. Rev.1 (1987), vol. 11. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Council Directive 2001/110 EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey.
Cwiková, O., Pavlíková, H., Ansorgová, A. 2015. Detection of honey adulteration using HPLC method. Potravinarstvo. vol. 9, no. 1, p. 388-392. https://doi.org/10.5219/499
ČSN 57 0190, 1974. Testing methods for bee honey. Prague, Czech Republic : Vydavatelství Úřadu pro normalizaci a měření. p. 28.
Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic No.76 / 2003 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 43/2005 Coll., laying down requirements for natural sweeteners, honey, confectionery, cocoa powder and mixtures of cocoa with sugar, chocolate and chocolate bonbons. Collection of Laws, 2003.
Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., Wahab, M. S. 2012. Honey: a novel antioxidant. Molecules. vol. 17, p. 4400-4423. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17044400
Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., Wahab, M. S. 2014. Effects of honey and its mechanisms of action on the development and progression of cancer. Molecules. vol. 19, p. 2497-2522. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19022497
EU.1 996. Proposal for a directive of the European council relating to honey. Document 96/0114. Bruxelles, Belgium : EC.
González-Gil, E. M., Santabárbara, J., Russo, P., Ahrens, W., Claessens, M., Lissner, L., Börnhorst, C., Krogh, V., Iacoviello, L., Molnar, D., Siani, A., Tornaritis, M., Veidebaum, T., Moreno, L. A. 2016. Food intake and inflammation in European children: the IDEFICS study. European Journal of Nutrition. vol. 55, p. 2459-2468. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-1054-3
Guziy, S., Šedík, P., Horská, E. 2017. Comparative study of honey consumption in Slovakia and Russia. Potravinarstvo. vol. 11, no. 1, p. 472-479. https://doi.org/10.5219/784
Hadagali, M. D., Chua, L. S. 2014. The anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of honey. European Food Research and Technology. vol. 239, p. 1003-1014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-014-2297-6
ISO 8589. 2007. Sensory analysis - General guidance for the design of test rooms. Geneva, Switzerland : International Organization for Standardization. 16 p.
ISO 6658. 2017. Sensory analysis - Methodology - General guidance. Geneva, Switzerland : International Organization for Standardization. 26 p.
Kňazovická, V., Bačiková, A., Bányiová, R., Tkáčová, J., Čanigová, M., Haščík, P. 2015. Honey characteristics after extraction and half-yearstorage. Potravinarstvo. vol. 9, no. 1, p. 543-549. https://doi.org/10.5219/560
McLoone, P., Warnock, M., Fyfe, L. 2016. Honey: an immunomodulatory agent for disorders of the skin. Food and Agricultural Immunology. vol. 27, p. 338-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540105.2015.1104653
Miguel, M. G., Antunes, M. D., Faleiro, M. L. 2017. Honey as a complementary medicine. Integrative Medicine Insights. vol. 12, p. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/1178633717702869
MZe. 2015. Situational Outlook Report of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture. Bees. November 2015. Available at: http://eagri.cz/public/web/file/457620/SVZ_Vcely_2015_komplet_final_20042016.pdf
Piana, L. M., Oddo, L. P., Bentabol, A., Bruneau E., Bogdanov S., Declerk, Ch. G. 2004. Sensory analysis applied to honey: state of art: Apidologie. vol. 35, p. S26-S37. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2004048
Roberfroid, M. B. 2000. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. vol. 71, p.1682-1687. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1682S
Santos-Buelga, C., González-Paramás, A. M. 2017. Chemical Composition of Honey. p. 43-82. In: Alvarez-Suarez, J. M. (eds): Bee Products - Chemical and Biological Properties. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59689-1-3
Roman, A., Popiela, E. 2011. Study of chosen toxic elements concentration of multiflower bee honey. Potravinarstvo. vol. 5, no. 2, p. 67-69. https://doi.org/10.5219/134
Song, J. J., Salcido, R. 2011. Use of honey in wound care: an update. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. vol. 24, p. 40-44. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000392731.34723.06
Titěra, D. 2006: Bee products demystified (Včelí produkty mýtů zbavené). 1st ed. Prague, Czech Republic : Vydavatelství Brázda s.r.o., 176 p. ISBN 80-209-0347-x.
Tsiapara, A. V., Jaakkola, M., Chinou, I., Graikou, K., Tolonen, T., Virtanen, V., Moutsatsou, P. 2009. Bioactivity of Greek honey extracts on breast cancer (MCF-7), prostate cancer (PC-3) and endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cells: profile analysis of extracts. Food Chemistry. vol. 116, p. 702-708. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.024
Viuda-Martos, M., Navajas, Y., Fernández-López, J., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A. 2008. Functional properties of honey, propolis, and royal jelly. Journal of Food Science. vol. 73, p. R117-R124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00966.x
Vorlová L., Hálková, G., Přidal, A., et al. 2002. Honey - Comprehensive analysis (Med - Souborná analýza). 1st ed. Brno, Czech Republic : Veterinární a farmaceutická univerzita Brno, p. 67. ISBN 80-7305-450-7. (In Czech)
WHO. 2017. The top 10 causes of death. Fact sheet, January 2017. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/
Yaghoobi, N., Al-Waili, N., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M., Parizadeh, S. M., Abasalti, Z., Yaghoobi, F., Esmaeili, H., Kazemi-Bajestani, S. M., Aghasizadeh, R., Saloom, K. Y., Ferns, G. A. 2008. Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP, and body weight compared with sucrose. Scientific World Journal. vol. 8, p. 463-469. https://doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2008.64
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).