The effect of coffee beans roasting on its chemical composition

Authors

  • Pavel Diviš Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Food chemistry and Biotechnology, Purkyňova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic, Tel.: +420541149454 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6809-0506
  • Jaromí­r Poří­zka Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Food chemistry and Biotechnology, Purkyňova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic, Tel.: +420 54114 9320 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2742-8053
  • Jakub Kří­kala Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Food chemistry and Biotechnology, Purkyňova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic, Tel.: +420541149393 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4776-9517

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/1062

Keywords:

coffee, roasting, hydroxymethylfurfural, sucrose, organic acids

Abstract

Drinking coffee has become part of our everyday culture. Coffee cultivation is devoted to over 50 countries in the world, located between latitudes 25 degrees North and 30 degrees South. Almost all of the world's coffee production is provided by two varieties, called ‘Arabica’ and ‘Robusta’ whereas the share of Arabica is 70% of the world's coffee harvest. Green (raw) coffee can not be used to prepare coffee beverages, coffee beans must first be roasted. Roasting coffee and reaching a certain degree of coffee roasting determine its flavor and aroma characteristics. In the present study the fate of sucrose, chlorogenic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, caffeic acid, total phenolic compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was studied in coffee (Brazil Cerrado Dulce, 100% Arabica) roasted in two ways (Medium roast and Full city roast). It has been found that almost all sucrose has been degraded (96 – 98%) in both roasting ways. During Medium roast 65% of chlorogenic acid contained in green coffee was degraded while during Full city roast it was 85%. During both Medium and Full city roasting, the formation of acetic acid but especially formic and lactic acid was recorded. The highest concentration of organic acids was recorded at Full City roasting at medium roasting times (3.3 mg.g-1 d.w. acetic acid, 1.79 mg.g-1 d.w. formic  acid, 0.65 mg.g-1d.w. lactic acid). The amount of phenolic substances also increased during roasting up to 16.7 mg.g-1 d.w. of gallic acid equivalent. Highest concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were measured at medium roasting times at both Medium (0.357 mg.g-1 d.w.) and French city (0.597 mg.g-1 d.w.) roasting temperatures. At the end of roasting, the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentration in coffee were 0.237 mg.g-1 d.w. (Medium roast) and 0.095 mg.g-1 d.w. (Full city roast).

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Published

2019-05-28

How to Cite

Diviš, P. ., Poří­zka, J. ., & Kří­kala, J. . (2019). The effect of coffee beans roasting on its chemical composition. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 13(1), 344–350. https://doi.org/10.5219/1062

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