Optimization of brewing time and temperature for caffeine and tannin levels in Dampit coffee leaf tea of Robusta (Coffea canephora) and Liberica (Coffea liberica)

Authors

  • Dewi Melani Hariyadi Universitas Airlangga, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics Department, Jl. Mulyorejo, Campus C, 60115, Surabaya, Indonesia, Tel.: +6281232238383 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9357-3913
  • Cynthia Amelia Tedja Universitas Brawijaya, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya Senso Gastronomy Centre, Jl. Veteran, 65145, Malang, Indonesia, Tel.: +6281235567489
  • Elok Zubaidah Universitas Brawijaya, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya Senso Gastronomy Centre, Jl. Veteran, 65145, Malang, Indonesia, Tel.: +628123105806
  • Sudarminto Setyo Yuwono Universitas Brawijaya, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya Senso Gastronomy Centre, Jl. Veteran, 65145, Malang, Indonesia, Tel.: +6281931891954
  • Kiki Fibrianto Universitas Brawijaya, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya Senso Gastronomy Centre, Jl. Veteran, 65145, Malang, Indonesia, Tel.: +6281332038520, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1011-8275

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/1212

Keywords:

caffeine, tannin, Robusta, Liberica, coffee leaf tea

Abstract

Coffee constitutes a plant product high in economic value. Extremely abundant throughout Indonesia, different varieties can be found in each region. Coffee leaves represent a by-product of coffee production which are disposed of without being subjected to further processing. One advantage of coffee leaf waste is that it can be made into coffee leaf tea, to prevent various diseases. The caffeine and tannin content can be optimized by temperature and brewing time. Research on coffee leaf tea remains limited, with little study of Liberica coffee leaf tea. This investigation was to determine the optimal brewing time and temperature of Robusta (Coffea canephora) and Liberica (Coffea liberica) coffee leaf tea. This research used the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) method with Central Composite Design (CCD). Data analysis using RSM method was conducted incorporating two factors. The first factor was the brewing temperature with a minimum value of 91 °C and a maximum value of 99 °C. The second factor was brewing time with minimum and maximum values of three and seven minutes respectively. Identifying the optimal treatment was based on two factors, caffeine and tannin content. Optimized processes were applied to conduct organoleptic tests on 110 untrained panelists using the Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method to highlight the majority attributes experienced by the panelists. The optimal brewing temperature and duration for robusta coffee leaf tea were 93.43 °C and 4.80 minutes which produced caffeine and tannin levels of 74.90 mg.100mL-1 and 293.01 µg.g-1 respectively. In contrast, in the case of Liberica coffee leaf tea, the optimal brewing conditions comprised a temperature of 91.65 °C and duration of 4.84 minutes which produced caffeine and tannin levels of 72.52 mg.100mL-1 and 415.87 µg.g-1. Results of sensory analysis showed that the majority produced five significant characteristics, namely: sweet flavor, fire flavor, sweet taste, bitter taste and astringent mouthfeel.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Angga, W. A., Rizal, Y., Mahata, M. E., Yuniza, A., Mayerni, R. 2018. Potential of Waste Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis) in West Sumatra to be Processed into Poultry Feed. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 6, p. 287-293. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2018.287.293

Ares, G., Bruzzone, F., Vidal, L., Cadena, R. S., Giménez, A., Pineau, B., Hunter, D. C., Paisley, A. G., Jaeger, S. R. 2014. Evaluation of a Rating-based Variant of Check-all-that-apply Questions: Rate-all-that-apply (RATA). Food Quality and Preference, vol. 36, p. 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2014.03.006

Arief, M. C. W., Tarigan, M., Saragih, R., Rahmadani, F. 2011. Budidaya Kopi Konservasi : Berbagi Pengalaman Dari Kabupaten Dairi, Provinsi Sumatera Utara: Panduan Sekolah Lapangan. Jakarta: Conservation International (CI) Indonesia. (In Indonesian) ISBN-10: 6028901067.

Ayustaningwarno, F. 2014. Teknologi Pangan Teori Praktis dan Aplikasi (Practical Theory of Food Technology and Applications). Cetakan ke I, tahun 2014. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. ISBN: 978-602-262-212-3. (In Indonesian)

Central Statistics Agency of Malang Regency. 2018. Kabupaten Malang dalam Angka 2018 (Malang Regency in Figures). Malang: BPS Kabupaten Malang. (In Indonesian) ISBN: 0215-5680.

Chang, R. B., Waters, H., Liman, E. R. 2010. A Proton Current Drives Action Potentials in Genetically Identified Sour Taste Cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 51, p. 22320-22325. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1013664107

Choi, S. E. 2019. Sensory evaluation. In Edelstein, S. Food Science: An Ecological Approach, First Edition. Burlington, USA : Jones and Bartlett Learning, LLC. 552 p. ISBN: 978-14496-9477-7.

Ciptaningsih, E. 2012. Uji aktivitas antioksidan dan karakteristik fitokimia pada kopi luwak arabika dan pengaruhnya terhadap tekanan darah tikus normal dan tikus hipertensi (Test of antioxidant activity and phytochemical characteristics in arabica civet coffee and its effect on blood pressure in normal mice and hypertensive mice). Thesis Faculty of Science and Mathematics Indonesian University. Depok. (In Indonesian)

Čížková, H., Voldřich, M., Mlejnecká, J., Kvasnička, F. 2008. Authenticity Evaluation of Tea Based Products. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 26, no. 4, p. 259-267. https://doi.org/10.17221/10/2008-CJFS

Damayanthi, E., Kusharto, C. M., Suprihatini, R., Rohdiana, D. 2008. Study of Catechin Content and its Derivatives as Natural Antioxidants and Organoleptic Characteristics of Mulberry Tea and Tea Products Camellia-Mulberry. Nutrition and Family Media, vol. 32, no. 11, p. 95-103.

de Godoy Pelozo, M. I., Carvalho Cardoso, M. L., Palazzo de Mello, J. C. 2008. Spectrophotometric Determination of Tannins and Caffeine in Preparations from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 447-451. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132008000300002

de Hoyos-Martínez, P. L., Merle, J., Labidi, J., Charrier-El Bouhtoury, F., 2019. Tannins extraction: A key point for their valorization and cleaner production. Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 206, p. 1138-1155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.243

Deb, S., Pou, J. K. R. 2016. A Review of Withering in the Processing of Black Tea. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, vol. 41, no. 4, p. 365-372. https://doi.org/10.5307/JBE.2016.41.4.365

Diez-Simon, C., Mumm, R., Hall, R. D. 2019. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of volatiles as a new tool for understanding aroma and flavour chemistry in processed food products. Metabolomics, vol. 15, no. 41, 20 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-019-1493-6

General Directorate of Plantations. 2016. Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia 2015-2017 Kopi (Statistics of Indonesia Plantation 2015-2017 Coffee). Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia. Jakarta: Sekretariat Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan Kementrian Pertanian. Available at: http://ditjenbun.pertanian.go.id/?publikasi=buku-publikasi-statistik-2015-2017. (In Indonesian)

Drewnowski, A., Gomez-Cameron, C. 2000. Bitter taste, Phytonutrients, and The Consumer: A review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 6, p. 1424-1435. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.6.1424

Hanspal, S. 2010. Consumer Survey on Sustainable Tea & Coffee Consumption. New Delhi, India : Partners in Change, 75 p. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/35231874/Consumer_Survey_on_Sustainable_Tea_and_Coffee_Consumption

Heckman, M. A., Weil, J., Gonzales de Mejia, E. 2010. Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) in Foods: a Comprehensive Review on Consumption Functionality, Safety and Regulatory Matters. Journal of Food Sience, vol. 75, no. 3, p. 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01561.x

Karori, S. M., Wachira, F. N., Wanyoko, J. K., Ngure, R. M. 2007. Antioxidant Capacity of Different Types of Tea Products. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 19, p. 2287-2296. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2007.000-2358

Khotimah, K. 2014. Karakteristik Kimia Kopi Kawa dari Berbagai Umur Helai Daun Kopi yang Diproses dengan Metode Berbeda (Chemical Characteristics of Kawa Coffee of Different Age of Leaf Leaves Processed by Different Methods). Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 40-48. Available at: https://jtpunmul.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/6-khusnul-vol-9-no-11.pdf (In Indonesian)

Kim, Y., Lee, K. G., Kim, M. K. 2016. Volatile and Non-Volatile Compounds in Green Tea Affected in Harvesting Time and Their Correlation to Consumer Preference. Journal of Food Science Technology, vol. 53, no. 10, p. 3735-3743. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2349-y

Kristiningrum, N., Cahyanti, Y. N., Wulandari, L. 2016. Determination of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Methanolic Extract of Robusta and Arabica Coffee Leaves. Proceeding ICHMHS, p. 96-99. ISBN 978-602-60569-3-1.

Laaksonen, O. 2011. Atringent Food Compunds and Their Interactions with Taste Properties. University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Available at: https://www.utupub.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/72464/diss2011Laaksonen.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Lee, J., Chambers, D. H. 2007. A Lexicon for Flavor Derscriptive Analysis of Green Tea. Journal of Sensory Studies, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 256-272. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-459X.2007.00105.x

Lee, J., Chambers, D. H., Chambers, E. 2013. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times. Foods, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 554-571. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods2040554

Maharjan, S., Singh, B., Bok, J. D., Kim, J. I., Jiang, T., Cho, C. S., Kang, S. K., Choi, Y. J. 2014. Exploring Codon Optimization and Surface Response Methodology to Express Biologically Active Transmembrane RANKL in E. coli. Plos One, vol. 9, no. 9, e107314. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096259

Mahmood, T., Akhtar, N., Khan, B. A. 2010. The Morphology, Characteristics and Medical Properties of Camellia sinensis Tea. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 4, no. 19, p. 2028-2033. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR10.010

Malang Electronic Data Manager. 2014. Profile of Dampit Subdistrict, Malang Regency. Available at http://dampit.malangkab.go.id/?page_id=5

Maramis, R. K., Citraningtyas, G., Wehantouw, F. 2013. Analisis kafein dalam kopi bubuk di kota manado menggunakan spektrofotometri uv-vis (Caffeine Analysis in Ground Coffee in Manado City Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry). Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi – UNSRAT, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 122-128. (In Indonesian)

Melati, N. 2012. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Process Parameter Optimization in Indomie Instant Noodle at PT Indofood CBP SUkses Makmur, TBK. Noodle Division Jakarta Branch. A Thesis. Bogor : IPB.

Mojet, J., Heidema, J., Christ-Hazelhof, E. 2003. Taste Perception with Age: Generic or Specific Losses in Supra-threshold Intensities of Five Taste Qualities? Chemical Senses, vol. 28, no. 5, p. 397-413. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/28.5.397

Montgomery, D. C. 2001. Design and Analysis of Experiments. New York : John Wiley and Sons Inc. Available at

Montgomery, D. C. 2016. Design and Analysis Experiment. 2nd Edition . New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Mouritsen, O., Styrbæk, K. 2017. Mouthfeel: How Texture Makes Taste. New York, USA : Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-54324-8. https://doi.org/10.7312/mour18076

Mumin, A., Akhter, K. F., Abedin, Z., Hossain, Z. 2006. Determination and Characterization of Caffeine in Tea, Coffee, and Soft Drink by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (SPE-HPLC). Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 45-51.

Pristiana, D. Y., Susanti, S., Nurwantoro, N. 2017. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Kadar Fenol Berbagai Ekstrak Daun Kopi (Coffea sp.): Potensi Aplikasi Bahan Alami untuk Fortifikasi Pangan (Antioxidants and Phenol Levels of Various Coffee Leaf Extracts (Coffea sp.): Potential Application of Natural Ingredients for Food Fortification). Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 89-92. https://doi.org/10.17728/jatp.205 (In Indonesian)

Putri, D. D., Ulfin, I. 2015. Pengaruh Suhu dan Waktu Ekstraksi terhadap Kadar Kafein dalam Teh Hitam (Effect of Temperature and Extraction Time on Caffeine Levels in Black Tea). Jurnal Sains dan Seni ITS, vol. 4, no. 2, p.105-108. (In Indonesian)

Retnaningtyas, Y., Kristiningrum, N., Renggani, H. D., Narindra, N. P. 2016. Characterization of Simplisia and Arabica Coffee Leaf Herbal Tea (Coffea Arabica). Proceedings of the National Seminar on Current Challenges in Drug Use and Development Current Challenges for Drug Development and Clinical Applications, p. 46-54.

Rossetti, D., Bongaerts, J. H. H., Wantling, E., Stokes, J. R., Williamson, A. M. 2009. Astringency of Tea Catechins: More than an Oral lubrication tactile percept. Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 23, no. 7, p. 1984-1992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2009.03.001

Saklar, S., Ertas, E., Ozdemir, I. S., Karadeniz, K. 2015. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions. Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 52, no. 10, p. 6639-6646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1746-y

Schwalfenberg, G., Genuis, S. J., Rodushkin, I. 2013 The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination. Journal of Toxicology, 8 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/370460

Somantri, R., Tanti. 2011. The Story and Benefits of Tea. Jakarta: Gramedia Publisher. ISBN 9797992780. (In Indonesian)

Yashin, A. Y., Nemzer, B., Combet, E., Yashin, Y. 2015. Determination of the Chemical Composition of Tea by Chromatographic Methods: a Review. Journal of Food Research, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 56-87. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v4n3p56

Zhang, J., Yang, R., Chen, R., Peng, Y., Wen, X., Gao., L. 2018. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tea Leaves and Potential Health zrisk Assessment: A Case Study from Puan County. Guizhou Province, China. Interantional Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 1, 22 p. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010133

Published

2020-02-28

How to Cite

Hariyadi, D. M., Tedja, C. A. ., Zubaidah, E., Yuwono, S. S., & Fibrianto, K. (2020). Optimization of brewing time and temperature for caffeine and tannin levels in Dampit coffee leaf tea of Robusta (Coffea canephora) and Liberica (Coffea liberica) . Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, 58–68. https://doi.org/10.5219/1212