Factors affecting raw milk quality of dairy cows under practical conditions
Keywords:dairy cows, data, milk, performance
Under the practical conditions, it is important to evaluate the factors affecting milk performance. Data from test day yield and milk components should be useful for such evaluation. The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of season, udder health (by somatic cell counts SCC), parity, stage of lactation on milk production, milk components, and SCC under the practical conditions. Also, the frequency of incidence of high SCC during the season was observed. The experiment was realized on one dairy farm in dairy practice. The experiment lasted from December 2015 to October 2017. We examined 481 Holstein dairy cows (6910 milk samples). Milk samples were collected once per month – performed by recording test day. Only cows with 9 – 11 test days were evaluated. The effect of season, parity, stage of lactation, and SCC influenced most of the studied traits. The milk yield was highest at 2nd lactation. In the following lactations, the milk yields were decreasing. The SCC significantly increased with advanced parity. The elevated SCC was found in the beginning and in the final part of lactation. SCC as a factor significantly reduced milk yield, lactose content but increased fat and protein content. In conclusion, under practical conditions, the management should use the data from test days and analyze them for a better understanding of the performance efficiency at the farm level and for implementing more sophisticated decision making in farming.
Barkema, H. W., Deluyker, H. A., Schukken, Y. H., Lam, T. J. G. M. 1999. Quarter-milk somatic cell count at calving and at the first six milkings after calving. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, p.1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-5877(98)00142-1
Bezman, D., Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L., Katz, G., Merin, U., Leitner, G. 2015. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow’s milk quality. Journal of Dairy Research, vol. 82, no. 3, p. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002202991500031X
Bobbo, I., Ruegg, P. L., Stocco, G., Fiore, E., Gianesella, M., Morgante, M., Pasotto, D., Bittante, G., Cecchinato, A. 2017. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 100, no. 6, p 4868-4883. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-12353
EU regulation 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. OJ L 139, 30.4.2004, p. 55-205.
Franzoi, M., Manuelian, C. L., Penasa, M., De Marchi, M. 2020. Effects of somatic cell score on milk yield and mid-infrared predicted composition and technological traits of Brown Swiss, Holstein Friesian, and Simmental cattle breeds. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 103, no. 1, p. 791-804. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16916
Gonçalves, J. L., Cue, I. R., Botaro, B. G., Horst, J. A., Valloto, A. A., Santos, M. V. 2018. Milk losses associated with somatic cell counts by parity and stage of lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 101, no. 5, p. 4357-4366 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13286
Hogeveen, H., Miltenburg, J. G., Den Hollander, S., Framlema, K. 2001. Milking three times a day and its effect on udder health and production. IDF Mastitis Newsletter, vol. 24, p. 7.
Kull, E., Sahin, A., Atasever, S. Ugurlutepe, E., Soyander, M. 2019. The effects of somatic cell count on milk yield and milk composition in Holstein cows. Veterinarski Arhiv, vol. 89, no. 2, p. 143-154. https://doi.org/10.24099/vet.arhiv.0168
Laevens, H., Deluyker, H., Schukken, Y. H., De Meulemeester, L., Vandermeersch, R., de Muelenaere, L. De Kruif, A. 1997. Influence of parity and stage of lactation on the somaticcell count in bacteriologically negative dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 80, no. 12, p. 3219-3226. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76295-7
Lambertz, C., Sanker, C., Gauly, M. 2014. Climatic effects on milk production traits and somatic cell score in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in different housing systems. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 97, no. 1, p. 319-329. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7217
Leitner, G., Chaffer, M., Shamay, A., Shapiro, F., Merin, U., Ezra, E., Saran, A., Silanikove, N. 2004. Changes in milk composition as affected by subclinical mastitis in sheep. Journal of Dairy Science, vol 87, no. 1, p. 46-52. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73140-9
Malinowski, E. 2001. Somatic cells in milk. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, vol. 57, no. 1, p. 13-17.
Mallet, A., Guéguen, M., Kauffmann, F., Chesneau, C., Sesboué, A., Desmasures, N. 2012. Quantitative and qualitative microbial analysis of raw milk reveals substantial diversity influenced by herd management practice. International Dairy Journal, vol. 27, no. 1-2, p. 13-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2012.07.009
Olde Riekerink, R. G. M., Barkema, H. W., Stryhn, H. 2007. The effect of season on somatic cell count and the incidence of clinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 90, vol. 4, p. 1704-1715. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-567
Penev, T., Gergovska, Z., Marinov, I., Kirov, K., Stankov, K., Mitev, Y., Miteva, C. 2014. Effect of season, lactation period and number of lactation on mastitis incidence and milk yields in dairy cows. Agricultural Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 231-238.
Petrovski, K. R., Trajcev, M., Buneski, G. A. 2006. A review of the factors affecting the costs of bovine mastitis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association : JSAVA, vol. 77, no. 2, p. 52-60. https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v77i2.344
Pyörärlä, S. 2003. Indicators of inflammation in the diagnosis of mastitis. Veterinary Research, vol. 34, 2003, no. 5, p. 565-578. https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2003026
Santos, M. V., M, Y., Barbano, D. M. 2003. Effect of somatic cell count on proteolysis and lipolysis in pasteurized fluid milk during shelf-life storage. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 86, no. 8, p. 2491. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73843-0
Sebastino, K. B., Uribe, H., Gonzalez, H. H. 2020. Effect of test year, parity number and days in milk on somatic cell count in dairy cows of Los Rios region in Chile. Austral journal of veterinary sciences, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0719-81322020000100102
Smith, L. K., Todhunter, D. A., Schoenberger, P. S. 1985. Environmental mastitis: Cause, Prevalence, Prevention. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 68, no. 6, p. 1531-1553. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(85)80993-0
Strapakova, E., Candrak, J., Strapak, P. 2016. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle. Archives Animal Breeding, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 329-335. https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-59-329-2016
Tančin, V. 2013. Somatic cell counts in milk of dairy cows under practical conditions. Slovak Journal of Animal Science, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 31-34. https://doi.org/10.5219/767
Tančin, V., Ipema, A. H., Hogewerf, P. 2007. Interaction of Somatic Cell Count and Quarter Milk Flow Patterns. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 90, no. 5, p. 2223-2228. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-666
Tančin, V., Ipema, B., Hogewerf, P. H., Mačuhová, J. 2006. Sources of variation in milk flow characteristics at udder and quarter levels. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 89, no. 3, p. 978-988. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72163-4
Tančin, V., Uhrinčať, M., Mačuhová, L., Bruckmaier, R. M. 2007. Effect of pre-stimulation on milk flow pattern and distribution of milk constituents at a quarter level. Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 52, no. 5, p. 117-121. https://doi.org/10.17221/2234-CJAS
Wagay, M. A., Tomar, A. K. S., Lone, S. A., Singh, A. K., Carolina, P. 2018. Association of milk quality parameters with teat and udder traits in Tharparkar cows. Indian Journal Of Animal Research, vol. 52, no. 9, p. 1368-1372. https://doi.org/10.18805/ijar.B-3363
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).