Effects of the lactation period, breed and feed on amino acids profile of mare’s milk
Keywords:mare’s milk, milk, amino acids, minerals, lactation, feed, breed
The effects of the lactation period, breed, and feed on amino acids profile of mare’s milk were investigated. The feed contained two major essential amino acids (EAAs) leucine (7.31 – 10.3 g.kg-1) and arginine (6.37 – 9.59 g.kg-1); it also included minor EAAs methionine (2.11 – 3.05 g.kg-1) and histidine (2.48 – 3.60 g.kg-1). Glu+Gln, Asp+Asn, and proline, major nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), constituted approximately 60% of total NEAAs (TNEAAs). The ratio of total EAAs to NEAAs ranged from 1:1.2 to 1:1.4. Amino acids (AA) content throughout all milk samples varied due to mare’s different conditions and lactation days. Except for the 1P milk sample, total AA content in the 2 – 8Ps specimens caused by differences in breed oscillated from the 2nd to 28th day of lactation within the following limits: 21.9 – 54.6 g.kg-1, 33.6 – 70.7 g.kg-1, 38.1 – 71.2 g.kg-1, 29.46 – 74.2 g.kg-1, 52.2 – 87.1 g.kg-1, 37.9 – 70.3 g.kg-1 and 26.4 – 64.5 g.kg-1, respectively. In relation to TEAAs in milk, the highest EAAs levels were reached in arginine, leucine and lysine ranging between 2.41 – 4.35 g.kg-1, 3.36 – 5.59 g.kg-1 and 2.72 – 4.80 g.kg-1, respectively, while the lowest AAs amounts were indicated in histidine and methionine, 0.91 – 1.58 g.kg-1 and 1.23 – 2.04 g.kg-1 respectively. Total NEAAs content was slightly higher than that of EAAs; the TNEAAs to TEAAs ratio was 1:0.9 proximately. Glu+Gln, Asp+Asn and proline were determined as major NEAAs of milk ranging between, 6.77 – 11.0 g.kg-1, 3.21 – 5.60 g.kg-1 and 1.25 – 2.18 g.kg-1, respectively; levels of NEAAs such as cysteine and glycine oscillated between 0.89 – 1.52 g.kg-1 and 0.64 – 1.15 g.kg-1, respectively. The average TAAs contents caused by breed differences were 62.8 g.kg-1, 42.8 g.kg-1, 44.7 g.kg-1 and 44.8 g.kg-1, respectively, on the 2nd, 5th, 10th, and 28th lactation days.
Abu-Ghazaleh, A. A., Schingoethe, D. J., Hippen, A. R. 2001. Blood amino acids and milk composition from cows fed soybean meal, fish meal, or both. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 84, no. 5, p. 1174-1181. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74578-X
Amarakoon, R., Kráčmar, S., Hoza, I., Budinský, P. 2009. The effect of Cooking on nutritive quality of selected legumes. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, vol. 57, no. 5, p. 13-18. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun200957050013
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edition, Washington DC. 18 p.
Awadalkareem, A. M., Mustafa, A, I., El Tinay, A. H. 2008. Protein, Mineral content and amino acid profile of sorghum flour as influenced by soybean protein concentrate supplementation. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 475-479. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2008.475.479
Barello, C., Perono Garoffo, L., Montorfano, G., Zava, S., Berra, B., Conti, A., Giuffrida, M. G. 2008. Analysis of major proteins and fat fractions associated with mare's milk fat globules. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 52, no. 12, p. 1448-1456. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700311
Biel, W., Bobko, K., Maciorowski, R. 2009. Chemical composition and nutritive value of husked and naked oats grain. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 49, no. 3, p. 413-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2009.01.009
Boisen, S., Hvelplund, T., Weisbjerg, M. R. 2000. Ideal amino acid profiles as a basis for feed protein evaluation. Livestock Production Science, vol. 64, no. 2-3, p. 239-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(99)00146-3
Buňka, F., Hrabě, J., Kráčmar, S. 2004. The effect of sterilisation on amino acid contents in processed cheese. International Dairy Journal, vol. 14, no. 9, p. 829-831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.02.008
Buňka, F., Kříž, O., Veličková, A., Buňková, L., Kráčmar, S. 2009. Effect of acid hydrolysis time on amino acid determination in casein and processed cheeses with different fat content. Journal of food Composition and Analysis, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 224-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.10.023
Businco, L., Giampietro, P. G., Lucenti, P., Lucaroni, F., Pini, C., Di Felice, G., Iacovacci, P., Curadi, C., Orlandi, M. 2000. Allergenicity of mare's milk in children with cow's milk allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 105, no. 5, p. 1031-1034. https://doi.org/10.1067/mai.2000.106377
Caroprese, M., Albenzio, M., Marino, R., Muscio, A., Zezza, T., Sevi, A. 2007. Behavior, Milk Yield, and Milk Composition of Machine-and Hand-Milked Murgese Mares. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 90, no. 6, p. 2773-2777. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-603
Csapó, J., Salamon, S., Lóki, K., Csapó-Kiss, Z. 2009. Composition of mare's colostrum and milk II. Protein content, amino acid composition and contents of macro- and micro-elements. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 133-148. Available at: http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-alim/C2-1/alim2-11.pdf
Csapó, J., Stefler, J., Martin, T. G., Makray, S., Csapó-Kiss, Z. 1995. Composition of mare's colostrum and milk. Fat content, fatty acid composition and vitamin content. International Dairy Journal, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 393-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/0958-6946(94)00008-D
Csapó-Kiss, Zs., Stefler, J., Martin, T. G., Makray, S., Csapó, J. 1995. Composition of mare's colostrum and milk. Protein content, amino acid composition and contents of macro and micro-elements. International Dairy Journal, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 403-415. https://doi.org/10.1016/0958-6946(94)00014-G
Curadi, M. C., Giampietro, P. G., Lucenti, P., Orlandi, M. 2001. Use of mare milk in dediatric allergology. Processings of the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale XIV Congress, Frenze, June 12-15, vol. 14, p. 647-649.
Davis, T. A., Nguyen, H. V., Garcia-Bravo, R., Fiorotto, M. L., Jackson, E. M., Reeds, P. J. 1994. Amino acid composition of the milk of some mammalian species changes with stage of lactation. British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 6, p. 845-853. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19940089
Di Cagno, R., Tamborrino, A., Gallo, G., Leone, C., De Angelis, M., Faccia M., Amirante, P., Gobbetti, M. 2004. Uses of mares' milk in manufacture of fermented milks. International Dairy Journal, vol. 14, no. 9, p. 767-775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.02.005
Doreau, M., Martin-Rosset, W. 2002. Dairy animals - Horse. In Roginski, H. Encyclopedia of Dairy Science. New York, USA : Academic Press, vol. 2, p. 630-637. ISBN 978-0-12-227235-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-227235-8/00115-2
Fišera, M., Valášek, P., Kráčmar, S., Kubáň, V., Burešová, P., Velichová, H., Fišerová, L. 2018. Influence of composition of feed and lactation period on mineral composition of Mare's. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 216-225. https://doi.org/10.5219/894
Fox, P. F. 2009. Milk: an Overview. In Thompson, A., Boland, M., Singh, H. Milk Proteins. From Expression to Food. Cambridge, USA : Academi Press, p. 1-54. ISBN 978-0-12-374039-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374039-7.00001-5
Fox, P. F., Mcsweeney, P. L. 1998. Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry. London, UK : Blackie Academic and Professional. ISBN: 0-412-72000-0.
Glade, M. J., Luba, N. K. 1990. Benefits to foals of feeding soybean meal to lactating broodmares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, vol. 10, no. 6, p. 422-428. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(06)80136-X
Huth, P, J., DiRienzo, D. B., Miller, G. D. 2006. Major Scientific Advances with Dairy Foods in Nutrition and Health. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 89, no. 4, p. 1207-1221. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72190-7
Ingos Ltd. 2006. Automatic amino acid analyser AAA 400: User manual, Prague, Czech Republic.
Kráčmar, S., Kuchtík, J., Baran, M., Váradyovaá Z., Kráčmarová, E., Gajdůšek, S., Jelínek, P. 2005. Dynamics of changes in contents of organic and inorganic substances in sheep colostrum within the first 72 h after parturition. Small Ruminant Research, vol. 56, no. 1-3, p. 183-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2004.06.012
Lehtola, K., Saastamoinen, M. T. 2010. Mare's milk composition in two breeds during different stages of lactation. Book of Abstracts of the 61st Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, 23-27 August, Heraklion, Greece, 16, p. 40. ISBN 978-90-8686-152-1. https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-708-0
Looper, M. L., Stokes, S. R., Waldner, D. N., Jordan, E. R. 2001. Managing milk composition: Feed additives and production enhancers. Available at: http://www.aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_d/d-106.html
Malacarne, M., Martuzzi, F., Summer, A., Mariani, P. 2002. Protein and fat composition of mare's milk: some nutritional remarks with reference to human and cow's milk. International Dairy Journal, vol. 12, no. 11, p. 869-877. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(02)00120-6
Martuzzi, F., Doreau, M. 2006. Mare milk composition: Recent findings about protein fraction and mineral content. In Miraglia, N., Martin-Rosset, W. Nutrition and Feeding of the Broodmare. Wageningen, Netherland : Wageningen Academic Publishers, p. 65-76.
Matsui, A., Inoue, Y., Asai, Y. 2003. Diurnal Variations in Milk Amino Acid Concentrations in the Horse. Journal of Equine Science, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 101-109. https://doi.org/10.1294/jes.14.101
Miclo, L., Girardet, G. M., Egito, A. S., Mollé, D., Martin, P., Gaillard, J. L. 2007 The primary structure of a low-Mr multiphosphorylated variant of β-casein in equine milk. Proteomics, vol 7, no. 8, p. 1327-1335. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200600683
Montanari, G., Zambonelli, C., Grazia, L., Kamesheva, G. K., Shigaeva, M. K. 1996. Saccharomyces unisporus as the principal alcoholic fermentation microorganism of traditional koumiss. Journal of Dairy Research, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 327-331. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900031836
National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 6th rev.edition, , Washington DC., USA : National Academy Press, p. 2-48. ISBN 978-0-309-10212-4. https://doi.org/10.17226/11653
Orskov, E. R. 1995. A Traveller's view of Outer Mongolia. Outlook on Agriculture, vol. 24, no. 2, p. 127-129. https://doi.org/10.1177/003072709502400211
Pagan, J. D., Hintz, H. F. 1986. Composition of milk from pony mares fed various levels of digestible energy. The Cornell Veterinarian, vol. 76, no. 2, p. 139-148. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/2027/coo.31924053530501?urlappend=%3Bseq=162
Park, Y. W. 2009. Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products. USA : Wiley-Blackwell Ltd. 439 p. ISBN-13: 978-0-8138-1982-2.
Pikul, J., Wójtowski, J. 2008. Fat and cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of mares' colostrums and milk during five lactation months. Livestock Science, vol. 113, no. 2-3, p. 285-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.06.005
Saastamoinen, M. T., Koskinen, E. 1993. Influence of quality of dietary protein supplement and anabolic steroids on muscular and skeletal growth of foals. Animal Science, vol. 56, no. 1, p. 135-144. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100006255
Salamon, R. V., Salamon, S., Csapó-Kiss, Z., Csapó, J. 2009. Composition of mare's colostrum and milk I. Fat content, fatty acid composition and vitamin contents. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 119-131. Available at: http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-alim/C2-1/alim2-10.pdf
van den Berg, M. 2009. Feeding the Lactating Mare. Horses and People Magazine, p. 12-14. Available at: https://www.mbequineservices.com/feeding-the-lactating-mare/
Wong, N. P., Jenness, R., Keeney, M., Marth, E. H. 1999. Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry. 3rd ed., Gaithersburb, USA : Aspen Publishers. ISBN: 0-8342-1360-5. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/19097830/Fundamentals_of_Dairy_Chemistry_3rd_ed_-_Noble_P._Wong_Aspen_Publishers_Inc._1999_
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).