Milk thistle flour effect on dough rheological properties
Keywords:wheat-rye-milk thistle composite, Chopin protocol, rheofermentometer, bread quality
The influence of the addition of partially defatted milk thistle seed flour was studied by analyzing the rheological properties of dough in order to further exploit the functionality of partially defatted milk thistle flour in bakery products. The rheological properties of dough were monitored using Mixolab 2 (Chopin Technologies, France). A rheofermentometer F4 (Chopin Technologies, France) was used to check the dough fermentation, and for the baking trials wheat flour, rye flour, and milk thistle flour were kept in the portion: 50:50:0 (control flour); 50:45:5; 50:40:10 and 50:35:15. The addition of different milk thistle flour in the mixtures resulted in a difference in the viscoelastic properties of the dough. The results showed a weakening of the gluten network in all trial mixtures evaluated. The dough development time values of the control flour were 1.20 min, while an addition of milk thistle flour in portions of 5, 10, and 15% increased these values to 1.30 min, 1.90 min, and 2,80 min, respectively. In addition to higher dough development time values, all trial mixtures exhibited also higher stability (5.07 min; 6.25 min and 8.03 min), when compared to the control flour (4.63 min). The trial mixture with 15% milk thistle flour had different characteristics of gelatinization and retrogradation. The rheofermentometer measured the dough characteristics during proofing, and the trial mixtures with the addition of MTF had a retention volume at approximately the same level as the control flour (WRF). The Volscan profiler was used to determine the bread volume and other parameters. All breads had high volume and specific volume values and can be rated as good, with good porosity and ratio. Mixtures containing 5%, 10% and 15% milk thistle flour added to wheat flour + rye flour maintained rheological parameters within the recommended limits for good technological behavior and, consequently, good quality of bakery products. From all of the above data, it can be stated that, with regard to their baking characteristics, these flour mixtures fall into the category of flours suitable for bakery products.
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