The contribution of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol to the total energy value of the diet: a cross-sectional study
Keywords:calorie content, energy substrates, macronutrients, regional features, ethnicity
While eating, people receive energy, as well as the necessary nutrients. However, different food products contain different amounts of macro- and micronutrients, so their consumption can vary significantly depending on eating habits. The diets of 105 people, first-year students of the Peoples` Friendship University of Russia from six different regions of the Earth: CIS countries; Latin America; Central and South Africa; North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia; Central and South Asia; Iran and Azerbaijan - were analyzed. Nutrition was evaluated by the frequency method. The median calorie intake among all examined was 2756 kcal per day. At the same time, the proportion of proteins from the total calorie content was 15.3%, from fats – 37.5%, from carbohydrates – 47.1%, from alcohol – 0.5%. It was not possible to detect significant differences in the consumption of macronutrients or their contribution to the energy value of the diet between the regions. The exception was ethanol consumption: students coming from Central and South Africa consumed significantly more alcoholic drinks compared to students from Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova. Due to the extremely high level of dispersion within each of the studied groups, it was not possible to detect significant differences in the consumption of macronutrients, depending on the region of origin of the student. That is, intra-group differences turned out to be significantly more than inter-group differences. At the same time, the share of macronutrients in ensuring the total calorie content of the diet in this study turned out to be close to the data obtained in large cities of other countries and significantly differed from the results of the assessment of diets of rural residents. Probably, the student’s nutrition is formed largely under the influence of the urban environment and individual taste preferences; ethnic and cultural affiliation plays a much smaller role.
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