The effect of raw pearl millet flour inclusion on the quality and formulation cost of beef sausages
Keywords:beef sausages, nutrient composition, physicochemical properties, sensory analysis, pearl millet flour
This study investigated the sensory, nutritional, and physicochemical characteristics as well as formulation cost of beef sausages formulated with raw pearl millet flour (RaPMF) as an extender. Four treatments were formulated with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% RaPMF. Ash, carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of the beef sausages were not influenced (p <0.05) by the RaPMF. The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and pH contents were highest (p <0.05) in the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Cooking loss was at least (p <0.05) for the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Formulation of beef sausages with RaPMF did not affect (p >0.05) the sensory properties (week 1), water holding capacity, peroxide value, lightness (week 1), and yellowness (week 1). The formulation cost was least for 15% RaPMF beef sausages and highest for 0% RaPMF beef sausages. As a general conclusion, RaPMF improved the mineral composition of the beef sausages and reduced production costs without compromising its physicochemical and sensory properties.
Abu, A., Teye, G. A., Adzitey, F. 2019. Effects of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaf powder on the sensory and nutritional qualities of beef and frankfurter sausages. UDS International Journal of Development, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 84-91. https://doi.org/10.47740/332.UDSIJD6i
Adua, E. A., Adzitey, F., Huda, N. 2020. Nutritional composition, physiochemical analysis, sensory properties and economics of raw and roasted “niri” (Citrullus vulgaris) chaff extended beef sausages. Journal of Animal Health and Production, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 212-220. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.jahp/2020/18.104.22.168
Alisson-Silva, F., Kawanishi, K., Varki, A. 2016. Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: Analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 51, p. 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2016.07.002
Amadi, A. O., 2020. Nutritional Effects of Full-Fat Soy Flour as an Extender on Cooked Beef Sausage Quality. Asian Food Science Journal, p. 44-53. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2020/v17i330195
Argel, N. S., Ranalli, N., Califano, A. N., Andrés, S. C. 2020. Influence of partial pork meat replacement by pulse flour on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 100, p. 3932-3941. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10436
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2000. Methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. MD, USA : AOAC International: Gaithersburg.
Battaglia, R. E., Baumer, B., Conrad, B., Darioli, R., Schmid, A., Keller, U. 2015. Health risks associated with meat consumption: A review of epidemiological studies. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol. 85, vol. 1-2, p. 70-80. https://doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000224
Behailu, B., Abebe, M. 2020. Effect of soybean and finger millet flours on the physicochemical and sensory quality of beef meat sausage. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 6-14. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2020/v7i119010
British Standard Institution Guidelines. 1993. Assessors for sensory analysis. Guide to selection, training and monitoring of selected assessors. United Kingdom : British standard institution London.
Cheng, Q., Sun, D. 2008. Factors affecting the water holding capacity of red meat products: A review of recent research advances. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 48, no. 2, p. 137-159. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390601177647
CIE. 1986. Colorimetry. 2nd edition. Vienna : Commission International Del, Eclairage.
El-Magoli, S. B. M., Abd-Allah, M. A. 2014. Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences. 2nd ed. Amsterdam, Netherland : Elsevier, p. 453-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384731-7.00197-5
Ergezer, H., Akcan, T., Serdaroglu, M. 2014. The effects of potato puree and bread crumbs on some quality characteristics of low fat meatballs. Korean Journal of Food Science and Animal Resources, vol. 34, no. 5, p. 561-569. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.5.561
Feiner, G. 2006. Meat Products Handbook: Practical Science and Technology. Boca Raton : Woodhead Publishing Limited, p. 19-32. ISBN 9781845691721.
Food and Agriculture Organization. 2013. Meat products with high levels of extenders and fillers. Available at: http://www.fao.org/tempref/docrep/fao/010/ai407e/ai407e07.pdf, accessed on 30/12/2020.
Food and Agriculture Organization. 2020. Sausage raw materials. Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/x6556e/X6556E02.htm, accessed on 30/12/2020.
Heinz, G., Hautzinger, P. 2007. Meat processing technology for small to medium scale producers. Bangkok : FAO, RAP Publication 2007/20.
Heywood, A. A., Myers, D. J., Bailey, T. B., Johnson, L. A. 2002. Functional properties of low-fat soy flour produced by an extrusion-expelling system. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 79, p. 1249-1253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0635-y
Kumar, R. R., Sharma, B. D., Kumar, M., Chidanandaiah, Biswas, A. K. 2007. Storage quality and shelf life of vacuum-packaged extended chicken patties. Journal of Muscle Foods, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 253-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4573.2007.00080.x
Lang, A. 2020. What is millet? Nutrition, benefits, and more. 1 p. Available at: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-is-millet#_noHeaderPrefixedContent, accessed on 30/12/2020.
Lee, M. A., Han, D. J., Jeong, J. Y., Choi, J. H., Choi, Y. S., Kim, H. Y. 2008. Effect of kimchi powder level and drying methods on quality characteristics of breakfast sausage. Meat Science, vol. 80, p. 708-714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.03.010
Malav, O. P., Sharma, B. D., Talukder, S., Kumar, R. R. 2013. Economics of preparation of restructured chicken meat blocks extended with different vegetative extenders. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, vol. 4, no. 12, p. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000282
Muthamilarasan, M., Dhaka, A., Yadav, R., Prasad, M. 2016. Exploration of millet models for developing nutrient rich graminaceous crops. Plant Science, vol. 242, p. 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.08.023
Nithiyanantham, S., Kalaiselvi, P., Mahomoodally, M. F., Zengin, G., Abirami, A., Srinivasan, G. 2019. Nutritional and functional roles of millets-A review. Journal of Food Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 7, p. e12859. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12859
Ossom, R. N., Adzitey, F., Teye, G. A., Abu, A., Amagloh, F. K. 2020b. Sensory and nutritional qualities of beef sausages prepared with sweet potato puree as extender. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 338-348.
Ossom, R. N., Teye, G. A. Adzitey, F. 2020a. Sensory and nutritional qualities of frankfurter sausages with sweet potato as extender. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 15222-15234. https://doi.org/10.18697/ajfand.89.18720
Pereira, A. L. F., Abreu, V. K. G. A. 2018. Lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. 1 p. Available at: https://www.intechopen.com/books/lipid-peroxidation-research/lipid-peroxidation-in-meat-and-meat-products, accessed on 30/12/2020.
Pintado, T., Delgado-Pando, G. 2020. Towards more sustainable meat products: extenders as a way of reducing meat content. Foods, vol. 9, no. 8, p. 1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081044
Salih, A. M., Smith, D. M., Price, J. F., Dawson, L. E. 1989. Modified extraction 2-thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid oxidation in poultry. Poultry Science, vol. 66, no. 9, p. 1483-1488. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0661483
Serdaroglu, M., Kavusan, H. S., Ipek, G., Ozturk, B. 2018. Evaluation of the quality of beef patties formulated with dried pumpkin pulp and seed. Korean Journal of Food Science and Animal Resources, vol. 38, no. 1, p. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2018.38.1.001
Stubbs, R. I., Morgan, J. B., Ray, K. F., Dolezal, H. G. 2002. Effect of supplemental vitamin E on color and case life of top lion steaks and ground chuck patties modified atmosphere case-ready retail packaging systems. Meat Science, vol. 61, no. 1, p. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00148-6
Taylor, J. R. N., Emmambux, M. N. 2008. Gluten-free cereal products and beverages. Food Science and Technology, vol. 2008, p. 119-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373739-7.50008-3
Warris, P. D. 2010. Fats fatty acids in meat. In: meat science, an introductory text. Wallingford Oxford Shire, UK : CAB International, p. 77-96.
Yadav, S., Yadava, R. 2008. Effects of using bengal gram flour and corn flour as extenders on physicochemical and nutritional quality of quail meat rolls. Veterinary Practice, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 150-153.
Yaro, J., Adzitey, F., Huda, N. 2021. Roasted pearl millet flour (RoPMF) improved the mineral composition of beef sausages. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering, Information and Technology, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 769-775. https://doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.2.13703
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).