Lead concentration in meat an meat products of different origin


  • Anetta Lukáčová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 01 Nitra
  • Jozef Golian Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 01 Nitra
  • Peter Massanyi Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Animal Physiology, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 01 Nitra
  • Grzegorz Formicki Pedagogical University of Craców, Faculty of Geography and Biology, Institute of Biology, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30 084 Craków




lead, meat, meat products, atomic absorption spectrophotometry


Meat is very rich and convenient source of nutrients including also a large extent of microelements. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain. The lead concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and the food production methods. Ingestion of contaminants, especially heavy metals, by animals causes deposition of residues in meat. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lead in the Malokarpatska and Lovecka salami during the technological processing with comparison to the raw materials originating from domestic and foreign production. Lead content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The starting materials in the Malokarpatska salami were found to contain the highest level of lead in the beef of foreign production (7.58 ppb), followed pork from foreign production (3.43 ppb), beef from domestic production (3.27 ppb), pork bacon from foreign production (2.41 ppb), pork from domestic production (1.63 ppb) and pork bacon from domestic production (1.57 ppb). The average concentration of lead was higher in homogenized samples with addition of additives and spices and ranged between 6.49 to 7.56 ppb. The lead concentration in final product Malokarpatska salami was in the range from 8.57 to 8.89 ppb. The highest mean Pb concentrations in the Lovecka salami in the starting materials were beef from foreign production, beef from domestic production, pork from foreign production, pork bacon from foreign production, pork from domestic production and pork bacon from domestic production (7.31, 3.77, 3.21, 2.40, 2.03, 1.97 ppb, respectively). Increasing concentration of lead was found after the addition of additives, spices and curing compounds causing a threefold increase in the concentration of lead in final products Lovecka and Malokarpatska salami. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in final products. Improvements in the food production and processing technology are increasing the chances of food contamination with various environmental pollutants, especially heavy metals.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Eed, M. A., Assubaie, F. N., El-Garawany, M. M., El- Hamshary, H., El-Tayeb, Z. M. 1997. Determination of heavy metal levels in common spices. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, vol. 2, no. 5, p. 223-226. Retrieved from the web: http://www.kfu.edu.sa/en/Deans/Research/Documents/1026.pdf

Akan, J. C., Abdulrahman, F. I., Sodipo, O. A., Chiroma, Y. A. 2010. Distribution of heavy metals in the liver, kidney and meat of beef, mutton, caprine, chicken from Kasuwan Shanu market in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno State Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, no. 8, p. 743-748. Retrieved from the web: http://maxwellsci.com/print/rjaset/v2-743-748.pdf

Baykov, B. D., Stoyanov, M. P., Gugova, M. L. 1996. Cadmium and lead bioaccumulation in male chickens for high food concentrations. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 1-4, p. 155-159. https://doi.org/10.1080/02772249609358308

Commission Regulations (EC) No 466/2001 of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of Europian Communities 1.77/1

Cunningham, W. P., Saigo, B. W. 1997. Environmental Science a Global Concern. 4th Edn. WMC Brown Publisher, New York, p. 278-279.

Demirezen, D., Uruc, A., 2006. Comparative study of trace elements in certain fish, meat and meat products. Meat Science, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 255-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.03.012 PMid:22062833

Chowdhury, M. Z. A., Aiddique, Z. A., Hossain, S. M., Kazi, A. I., Ahmed, S., Zaman, M. 2011. Determination of essential and toxic metals in meats, meat products and eggs by spectrophotometric method. Journal of Bangladesh Chemical Society, vol. 24, no. 2, p. 165-172.

Gonzales-Waller, D., Karlsson L., Caballero, A., Hernandez, F., Gutierrez, A., Gonzalez-Igalesias, T., Marino, M., Hardission A., 2006. Lead and cadmium in meat and meat products consumed by the population in Tenerife Islands. Food Additives & Contaminants, vol. 23, no. 3, p. 757-763. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030600758142 PMid:16807203

Halliwel, D., Turoczy, N., Stagnitti, F. 2000. Lead concentrations in Eucalyptus sp. in a small coastal town. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 65, no. 5, p. 583-590. Retrieved from the web: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs0012800163

Humphreys, D. J. 1991. Effects of exposure to excessive quantities of lead on animals. British Veterinary Journal, vol. 147, no. 2, p. 18-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/0007-1935(91)90063-S

Jayasekara, S. U., Samarajeewa, U., Jayakody, A. N. 1992. Trace metals in foods of animal origin in Srilanka. ASEAN Food Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 105-107. Retreived from the web: http://www.agris.upm.edu.my:8080/dspace/handle/0/4816

Larkin, D., Margaret, J. C., Bartlet, J. C., Chapman, R. A. 1954. The lead, zinc and copper content of foods. Food Research, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1954.tb17441.x

Muller, M., Anke, M. 1995. Investigations into the oral lead exposure of adults in the former German Democratic republic. Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und Forschung, vol. 200, no. 2, p. 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01192905

National Food Administration in Sweden. 2004. Short report - contamination with lead. Available at: http://www.slv.se. Accessed 2004 January 01.

Nkansah, M. A., Amoako, C. O. 2010. Heavy metal content of some common spices available in markets in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. vol. 44, no. 2, p. 215-222. https://doi.org/10.5251/ajsir.2010.

Nuurtamo, M., Varo, P., Saari, E., Koivistoinen, P. 1980. Mineral element composition of Finish food. Acta Agriculture Scandinavia, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 57-87.

Okoye C. O. B., Ugwu J. N., 2010 Impact of environmental cadmium, lead, copper and zinc on quality of goat meat in Nigeria. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 24, no. 1, p. 133-138. https://doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v24i1.52975

Oskarsson, A., Jorhem, L., Sundberg, J., Nilsson, N. G., Albanus, N. 1992. Lead poisoning in cattle transfer of lead to milk. Science of the Total Environment, vol. 111, no. 2,

p. 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(92)90348-V

Ozkutlu, F., Kara, S. M., Sekeroglu, N. 2006. Heavy metals, micronutrients, mineral content, toxicity, trace elements. ISHS Acta Horticulturae, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 756-760.

Rajaganapathy V., Xavier, F., Sreekumar, D., Mandal, P. K. 2011. Heavy metal contamination in soil, water and fodder and their presence in livestock and products. Journal of Environmental Science and technology, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 234-249. Retreived from the web: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/50406869_Heavy_Metal_Contamination_in_Soil_Water_and_Fodder_and_their_Presence_in_Livestock_and_Products__A_Review

Reilly, C. 1991. Metal contamination of food. London-New York: Elsevier Applied Science. p 3-151.

Rubio, C., González-Iglesias, T., Revert, C., Reguera, J. I., Gutiérrez, A. J., Hardisson, A. 2005. Lead dietary intake in a Spanish Population (Canary Islands). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 2, p. 6543-6549. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf058027v

Sabir, M. S., Khan, S. W., Hayat, I. 2003. Effect of environmental pollution on quality of meat in district bagh. Azas Kashmir Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 2, no. 2,

p. 98-101. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2003.98.101

Santhi, D., Balakrishnen, V., Kalaikannan, A:, Radhakrishnan, K. T. 2008. Presence of heavy metals in pork products in Chennai. American Journal of Food Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 192-199. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2008.192.199

Schroeder, G. S., 1991. Lead and cadmium in meat, liver and kidney samples from lambs and sheep. Food Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 128-132.

Tahvonen, R., Kumpulainen J., 1994. Lead and cadmium contents in pork, beef and chicken and in pig and cow liver in Finland. Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 11, no. 2,

p. 415-426. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652039409374243 PMid:7958111

Ulrich, R., Raszyk, A., Napravnik, A. 2001. Variations in contamination by mercury, cadmium and lead on swine farms in the district of Hodonin in 1994 to 1999. Weterynaryjna Medycina, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 132-139. Retreived from the web: http://vri.cz/docs/vetmed/46-5-132.pdf

WHO. World Health Report 2000: Lead. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Fifty-third meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Commiteee on Food Additives (JECFA). Geneva: WHO Food Additives Series 44. p. 273-312.

WHO. The methods and data used in the World Health Report 2000; A response to the commentary made by the Brazilian Delegation to the Executive Board, 17th and 19th January 2001. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.




How to Cite

Lukáčová, A. ., Golian, J. ., Massanyi, P. ., & Formicki, G. . (2014). Lead concentration in meat an meat products of different origin. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 8(1), 43–47. https://doi.org/10.5219/334

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>