The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

Authors

  • Lenka Kouřimská Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Quality of Agricultural Products, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 ”“ Suchdol
  • Šárka Jiráková Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Quality of Agricultural Products, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 ”“ Suchdol
  • Anna Adámková Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Quality of Agricultural Products, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 ”“ Suchdol

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/458

Keywords:

glycaemia, glycaemic index, age, gender, time after consumption

Abstract

Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI) foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years). All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85), white bread bun (GI 70), boiled potatoes (GI 64), rye bread (GI 62), potato dumplings (GI 52) and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41). Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001) and gender (p <0.0001). The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001). An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001). One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035). The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574) and sex (p = 0.8256) of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food (p <0.0001). Significant interactions were also found in case of sex*age (p = 0.0002), age*GI (p <0.0001) and age*sex*GI (p <0.0001). Medium correlation was found between the GI values of food and the rise of blood glucose levels after 1 h (r = 0.6468). After the consumption of high-GI foods the values of glycaemia did not returned to their fasting levels even after 2 hours. There was still significant difference (p = 0.0032), but the values after 2 h were also statistically different from those after 1 hour (p <0.0001). The response to a particular type of consumed food depended on age (p = 0.0018) and especially the GI of foods.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Denova-Gutiérrez, E., Huitrón-Bravo, G., Talavera, J. O, Castañón, S., Gallegos-Carrillo, K., Flores, Y., Salmerón, J. 2010. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and coronary heart disease. Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2010, p. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/170680

Dickinson, S., Brand-Miller, J. 2005. Glycemic index, postprandial glycemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr. Opi. Lipidol., vol. 16, no. 1, p. 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1097/00041433-200502000-00012 PMid:15650566

Foster-Powell, K., Holt, S. H. A., Brand-Miller, J. C. 2002. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 76, no. 1, p. 5-56. PMid:12081815

Frost, G., Dornhorst, A. 2000. The relevance of the glycemic index to our understanding of dietary carbohydrates. Diabetic Medicine, vol. 17, no. 5, p. 336-345. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-5491.2000.00266.x PMid:10872531

Frost, G., Dornhorst, A. 2005. Glycemic Index. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. Volume Two. (Benjamin Caballero, Lindsay Allen, Andrew Prentice). 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Academic Press, p. 413-419. ISBN: 978-0-12-375083-9. 2000 p. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-226694-3/02144-X

Gaert, W. 2003. Diabetes. Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Warrell, D. A., Cox, T. M, Firth J. D. and Benz, E. J. (Eds.). 4th ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 317 p.

ISBN 0-19-262922-0.

Gogebakan, O., Kohl, A., Osterhoff, M. A., van Baak, M. A., Jebb, S. A., Papadaki, A., Martinez, J. A., Handjieva-Darlenska, T., Hlavaty, P., Weickert, M. O., Holst, C., Saris, W. H. M., Astrup, A., Pfeiffer, A. F. H. 2011. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation, vol. 124, no. 25, p. 2829-2838. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.033274 PMid:22104550

Jenkins, D. J. A., Kendall, C. W. C., Augu stin, L. S. A., Franceschi, S., Hamidi, M., Marchie, A., Jenkins, A. L., Axelsen, M. 2002. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 76, no. 1, p. 266S-273S. PMid:12081850

Kong, A. P. S., Choi, K. C., Chan, R. S. M., Lok, K., Ozaki, R., Li, A. M., Ho, C. S., Chan, M. H. M., Sea, M., Henry, C. J., Chan, J. C. N., Woo, J. 12014. A randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of a low glycemic index (GI) diet on body mass index in obese adolescents. BMC Public Health, vol. 14, PMid:24552366

Leeds, A. R. 2002. Glycemic index and heart disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 76, no. 1, p. 286S-289S. PMid:12081853

Little, J. P., Chilibeck, P. D., Ciona, D., Forbes, S., Rees, H., Vandenberg, A., Zello, G. A. 2010. Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., vol. 20, no. 6, p. 447-456. PMid:21116017

Mondazzi, L., Arcelli, E. 2009. Glycemic index in sport nutrition. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., vol. 28, no. 4, p. 455S-463S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2009.10718112 PMid:20234033

Papadaki, A., Linardakis, M., Larsen, T. M., van Baak, M. A., Lindroos, A. K., Pfeiffer, A. F. H., Martinez, J. A., Handjieva-Darlenska, T., Kunesova, M., Holst, C., Astrup, A., Saris, W. H. M., Kafatos, A. 2010. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition: the DiOGenes randomized study. Pediatrics, vol. 126, no. 5, p. E1143-E1152. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-3633 PMid:20937657

Randi, G., Ferraroni, M., Talamini, R., Garavello, W., Deandrea, S., Decarli, A., Franceschi, S., La Vecchia, C. 2008. Glycemic index, glycemic load and thyroid cancer risk. Annals of Oncology, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 380-383. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdm433 PMid:17951595

Rovner, A. J., Nansel, T. R., Gellar, L. 2009. The effect of a low-glycemic diet vs a standard diet on blood glucose levels and macronutrient intake in children with type 1 diabetes. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., vol. 109, no. 2, p. 303-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.047 PMid:19167958

Svačina, Š., Bretšnajdrová, A. 2008. Dietologický slovník (Dietological dictionary). 1st ed. Praha, CZ: Triton. 271 p. ISBN 978-80-7387-062-1.

WHO. 2000. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation (WHO Technical Report Series 894). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. 9 p. ISBN 92-4-120894-5. [cit. 2015-03-02] Available at: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/WHO_TRS_894/en/

Downloads

Published

2015-07-07

How to Cite

Kouřimská, L. ., Jiráková, Šárka ., & Adámková, A. . (2015). The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 9(1), 223–227. https://doi.org/10.5219/458

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >> 

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.