RAPD analysis of the genetic polymorphism in european wheat genotypes
Keywords:Triticum aestivum L., PCR, RAPD marker, genetic diversity
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the main crops for human nutrition. The genetic variability of grown wheat has been reduced by modern agronomic practices, which inturn prompted the importance of search for species that could be useful as a genepool for the improving of flour quality for human consumption or for other industrial uses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity among 24 European wheat genotypes based on Random Amplified Polymorphism (RAPD) markers. A total of 29 DNA fragments were amplified with an average 4.83 polymorphic fragments per primer. The primer producing the most polymorphic fragments was SIGMA-D-P, where 7 polymorphic amplification products were detected. The lowest number of amplified fragments (3) was detected by using the primer OPB-08. The size of amplified products varied between 300 bp (OPE-07) to 3000 bp (SIGMA-D-P). The diversity index (DI) of the applied RAPD markers ranged from 0.528 (OPB-07) to 0.809 (SIGMA-D-P) with an average of 0.721. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the markers varied from 0.469 (OPB-07) to 0.798 (SIGMA-D-P) with an average 0.692. Probability of identity (PI) was low ranged from 0.009 (SIGMA-D-P) to 0.165 (OPB-07) with an avarage 0.043. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. Within the dendrogram was separated the unique genotype Insegrain (FRA) from the rest of 23 genotypes which were further subdivided into two subclusters. In the first subclaster were grouped 13 genotypes and the second subcluster involved 10 genotypes. The first subcluster also included the genotype Bagou from France, in which were detected novel high - molecular - weight glutenin subunits using SDS-PAGE. Using 6 RAPD markers only two wheat genotypes have not been distinguished. Through that the information about genetic similarity and differences will be helpful to avoid any possibility of elite germplasm becoming genetically uniform.
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