Scientific basis of use of fruits Coriandrum sativum L. In food technologies
Keywords:Coriandrum sativum, distillation, essential oil, fraction, flavor
Today in the world recognized the need for environmentally friendly products for a healthy food and quality life. Products with natural ingredients, including flavoring become very popular. Coriander is one of herbs that functions as both, spice as well as herbal medicine. Coriandrum sativum L. is a major aromatic crop in Ukraine. The plants of Coriandrum sativum contain the essential oils and other compounds in the seeds and leaves and have an important role as flavorings. The main objective was to investigate possibility effective utilization of coriander essential oil in national economy of Ukraine. It was necessary to study the chemical compounds of coriander fruits by instrumental analysis and odor by sensory analysis with following creating new aroma compositions. Search had been carried out throughout 2009 - 2014 years. The aerial parts of aromatic plants were harvested at the plots of National Botanical Garden of National Academy of the Sciences of Ukraine. Essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation procedure in National University of food technology. Main and specific components of essential oils from seeds coriander were characterized. Qualitative structure of essential oils was determined by the gas-liquid chromatography method on the chromatograph Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass-spectrometric detector 5973. The run of components was done using Device of Fractional Distillation. Linalool, limonene, geranyl acetate, d-camphor, myrcene and geraniol were found as the major components. In the composition of essential oils each component has its own flavor, the combination of which determines the flavor of the oil. We investigated the possibility of target separation of essential oils of coriander fruits into fractions of different flavor. The article presents the results of research sequential processing fruits Coriandrum sativum to obtain a series of natural flavors. Principles and laws of the vacuum distillation were used for directional control of the process distillation of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons on the distillation column. Mode of selection process the fractionation of essential oils allowed changing the component composition of the fractions and to provide more variety of flavors. Monitoring of the fractioning process allows concentrating the key aromatic components and receiving highly concentrated flavors of original pure notes. Combinations of the individual fractions with a specific weight have been created. We obtained some fractions which can be used as flavorings in food industries. Highly concentrated flavor "Coriander fragrance" was developed with fraction № 3 of essential oil coriander. "Coriander fragrance" can be used instead of the aromatic spirits of coriander seeds in liquors and spirits production for producing bitters, liquors and other drinks, e.g. vodkas "Gorilka", "Chernihivska", "Starokyivska". The flavors "Coriander fragrance" was used in processing for "Lollipop" candies, vodka special "Captain", dessert drink "Married couple".
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