The effect of feeding milk thistle seed cakes on quality indicators of broiler chickens meat
Keywords:Silybum marianum L., meat quality, growth, texture, colour, flavour
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) seed cakes at dose 5% and 15% in feed mixture on quality indicators of broiler chickens meat. The used milk thistle seed cakes contained 3.73% of flavonolignans and 129.83 mg.kg-1 of cyanidin-3-glucoside. A 150 cockerels of Ross 308 were divided into three equal groups. The chickens were fattened on conventional deep litter system. The experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 5% of milk thistle seed cakes (MT5), 15% of milk thistle seed cakes (MT15) and third group was control - without milk thistle seed cakes (C). The trial lasted 37 days. At the end of trial was observed significant higher average weight of chickens (2,320.31 g) in control group. Compare to that the experimental group MT5 achieved significant lower mean bodyweight 2,166.69 g. From the perspective of fattening was decreased growth of chickens where a higher percentage of milk thistle seed cakes (MT15). The group MT15 was up to 420 g lower slaughter weight compared to the control group. This was probably due to the higher content of fiber in the feed. At the end of experiment 15 birds were selected randomly from each group, weighed and slaughtered. Feathers were removed and chickens were eviscerated. Carcass yield was calculated for each group like as percentage of live weight. The MT5 and MT15 group had significantly higher breast meat tenderness that the control group. Initial pH1 was highest in group with its middle addition of milk thistle seed cakes (MT5). Significant differences were not observed between control and group MT15. Breast meat was rated as the best in parameter flavour in control and MT15 group. The thigh meat was evaluated significantly best for colour parameter in MT15 group. Fibreness was rated as the finest in MT15 group. The addition of milk thistle seed cakes do not worsened sensory characteristic of breast or thigh meat of broilers and reflects optimal sensory quality traits.
Aviagen Group, 2014. Technological procedure for broiler Ross [online]. Aviagen Group 2014. [cit. 2015-12-02]. Available at: http://en.aviagen.com/ross-308.
Bobko, M., Lagin, L., Angelovičová, M., Bobková, A., Haščík, P. 2009. Vplyv prídavku fytoaditív na kvalitu kuracieho mäsa (Effect of phyto-additives addition on the chicken meat quality). Potravinarstvo, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 3-7.
Carreras, I., Castellari, M., Garcia Regueiro, J. A., Guerrero, L., Esteve-Garcia, E., Sarraga, C. 2004. Influence of enrofloxacin administration and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplemented diets on oxidative stability of broiler tissues. Poultry Science, vol. 83, no. 5, p. 796-802. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.5.796 PMid:15141838
Cavitt, L. C., Meullenet, J. F., Xiong, R., Owens, C. M. 2005. The relationship of razor blade shear, Allo-Kramer shear, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory tests to changes in tenderness of broiler breast fillets. Journal of Muscle Foods, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 223-242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4573.2005.00001.x
CIE. 2007. Colorimetry, part 4: CIE 1976 L*a*b* Colour space. CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, CIE DS 014-4.3/E:2007, 8 p.
Cook, G. L., Homer, D. B. 1996. The effect of number of sensory assessments on the accuracy of treatment comparisons in meat quality trials. Food quality and Preference, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 95-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/0950-3293(95)00041-0
Comelli, M. C., Mengs, U., Prosdocimi, M., Schneider, C. 2007. Toward the definition of the mechanism of action of silymarin: Activities related to cellular protection from toxic damage induced by chemotherapy. Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 120-129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735407302349 PMid:17548791
Ding, T. M., Tian, S. J., Zhang, Z. X., Gu, D. Z., Chen, Y. F., Shi, Y. H., Sun, Z. P. 2001. Determination of active component in silymarin by RP-LC and LC/MS. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 155-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(01)00364-8
Drobná, Z., Zelenka, J., Mrkvicová, E., Kladroba, D. 2006. Influence of dietary lineseed and sunflower oil on sensory characteristics of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 51, no. 11, p. 475-482.
Erdogan, Z., Erdogan, S., Celik, S., Unlu, A. 2005. Effects of ascorbic acid on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and performance of broilers. Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 104, no. 1, p. 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:104:1:019
Gawel, A., Kotonski, B., Madej, J. A., Mazurkiewicz, M. 2003. Effect of silimarin on chicken and turkey broilers' rearing and the production indices of reproduction hen flocks. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, vol. 59, no. 6, p. 517-520.
Haščík, P., Trembecká, L., Bobko, M., Čuboň, J., Bučko, O., Tkáčová, J. 2015. Evaluation of meat quality after application of different feed additives in diet of broiler chickens. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9 no. 1, p. 174-182. https://doi.org/10.5219/429
Chalker-Scott, L. 1999. Environmental significance of anthocyanins in plant stress responses. Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 70, no. 1, p. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1999.tb01944.x
Jung, H., Kwak, H.-K., Hwang, K. T. 2014. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside in hydrogen peroxide and lipopolysaccharide treated RAW264.7 cells (830.23). The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 823-830.
Komprda, T., Zelenka, J., Drobná, Z., Jarošová, A., Fajmonová, E. 2003. Sensory quality of meat of turkeys fed the diet with sunflower, linseed or fish oil. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, vol. 67, no. 5, p. 225-230.
Luo, X., Fang, S., Xiao, Y., Song, F., Zou, T., Wang, M, Xia, M., Ling, W. 2012. Cyanidin-3- glucoside suppresses TNF-α-induced cell proliferation through the repression of Nox activator 1 in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells: involvement of the STAT3 signaling. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 362, no. 1, p. 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-011-1144-3 PMid:22120492
Meullenet, J. F., Jonville, E., Grezes, D., Owens, C. M. 2004. Prediction of the texture of cooked poultry pectoralis major muscles by near-infrared reflectance analysis of raw meat. Journal of Texture Studies, vol. 35, no. 6, p. 573-585. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2004.35510.x
Miyazawa, T., Nakagawa, K., Kudo, M., Muraishi, K., Someya, K. 1999. Direct intestinal absorption of red fruit anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, into rats and humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 1083-1091. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9809582 PMid:10552420
Opletal, L., Skřivanová, V. 2010. Přírodní látky a jejich biologická aktivita. Praha: Karolinum, p. 140-142. ISBN 978-80-246-1801-2.
Opletal, L., Šimerda, B. 2015. Flavanoidy ve výživě zvířat [online] s.a. [cit. 2015-12-05]. Avaliable at: http://www.vuzv.cz/sites/Flavanoidy(2).pdf.
Pojer, E., Mattivi, F., Johnson, D., Stockley, C. S. 2013. The case for anthocyanin consumption to promote human health: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 12, no. 5, p. 483-508. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12024
Poste, L. M., Butler, G., Cave, N. A., Burrows, V. D. 1996. Sensory analysis of meat from broiler chickens fed diets containing hulless oats (Avena nuda). Canadian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 76, no. 3, p. 313-319.
Saláková, A. 2012. Instrumental measurement of texture and color of meat and meat products. Maso International Brno, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 107-114.
Salami, S. A., Majoka, M. A., Saha, S., Garber, A., Gabarrou, J. F. 2015. Efficacy of dietary antioxidants on broiler oxidative stress, performance and meat quality: science and market. Avian Biology Research, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 65-78.
Scazzocchio, B., Vari, R., Filesi, C., D'Archivio, M., Santangelo, C., Giovannini, C., Iacovelli, A., Silecchia, G., Li Volti, G., Galvano, F., Masella, R. 2011. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside and protocatechuic acid exert insulin-like effects by upregulating PPAR activity in human omental adipocytes. Diabetes, vol. 60, no. 9, p. 2234-2244. https://doi.org/10.2337/db10-1461 PMid:21788573
Schiavone, A., Righi, F., Quarantelli, A., Bruni, R., Serventi, P., Fusari, A. 2007. Use of Silybum marianum fruit extract in broiler chicken nutrition: influence on performance and meat quality. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, vol. 91, no. 5-6, p. 256-262. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00701.x PMid:17516949
Suchý, P., Straková, E., Kummer, V., Herzig, I., Písaříková, V., Blechová, R., Mašková, J. 2008. Hepatoprotective effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seed cakes during the chicken broiler fattening. Acta Veterinaria Brno, vol. 77, no. 1, p. 31-38. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200877010031
Tedesco, D. 2001. The potentiality of herbs and plants extracts as feed additives in livestock production. Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, vol. 27, no. 3-4, p. 111-133.
Valous, N. A., Mendoza, F., Sun, D. W., Allen, P. 2009. Colour calibration of a laboratory computer vision system for quality evaluation of pre-sliced hams. Meat Science, vol. 81, no. 1, p. 132-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.07.009 PMid:22063973
Wallace, T. C. 2011. Anthocyanins in cardiovascular disease. Advances in Nutrition, vol. 2, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.110.000042 PMid:22211184
Wei, X., Wang, D., Yang, Y., Xia, M., Li, D., Li, G., Zhu, Y., Xiao, Y. Ling, W. 2011. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside improves obesity and triglyceride metabolism in KK-Ay mice by regulating lipoprotein lipase activity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 91, no. 6, p. 1006-1013. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4275 PMid:21360538
Zahid, R., Durrani, F. R. 2007. Biochemical, hematological, immunological and growth promotant role of feed added Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) in broiler chicks : M.Sc (Hons) thesis.Ssubmitted to NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan.
Zhang, W. G., Xiao, S., Lee, E. J., Ahn, D. U. 2011. Consumption of Oxidized Oil Increases Oxidative Stress in Broilers and Affects the Quality of Breast Meat. Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 3, p. 969-974. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf102918z PMid:21192702
Zelenka, J., Heger, J., Zeman, L. 2007. Recommended nutrient content in poultry diets and nutritive value of feeds for poultry (in Czech). Brno: MZLU. 77 p. ISBN 978-80-7375-091-6.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).