Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

Authors

  • Marianna Lenková Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Judita Bystrická Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra
  • Alena Vollmannová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra
  • Tomáš Tóth Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra
  • Ján Kovarovič Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/698

Keywords:

antioxidant activity, garlic, total polyphenols

Abstract

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world and highly valued throughout the ages as a culinary spice. It is a hardy perennial belonging to the Alliaceae family. The garlic bulb is the most commonly used portion of the plant, composed of 5 - 20 individual. It is a very good source of manganese, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). In addition, garlic is a good source of other minerals, including phosphorous, calcium, potassium, iron and copper. Many of the perceived therapeutic effects of garlic are thought to be due to its active ingredient allicin. This sulphur-containing compound gives garlic its distinctive pungent smell and taste. Garlic possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal properties allowing it to stand against all infections. This work has focused on the evaluation and comparison of total content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in five varieties of garlic - Mojmír, Záhorský, Lukan, Havran and Makoi. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. The total content of polyphenols was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols in garlic were in the range 621.13 mg.kg-1 (Záhorský) to 763.28 mg.kg-1 (Havran). Total polyphenols content in garlic declined in the following order: Havran >Mojmír >Makoi >Lukan >Záhorský. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl). Statistically significant highest value of antioxidant was recorded in 20.22% (Mojmír) and the lowest value was in 13.61% (Záhorský). The values of antioxidant activity observed in the varieties of garlic may be arranged as follows: Mojmír >Havran >Lukan >Makoi >Záhorský. In all the analysed varieties of garlic was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenols.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Act No. 220/2004 Coll. Of Laws of Slovak Republic. On the conservation and use of agricul- tural land, amending the Act No. 245/2003 Coll. on integrated pollution prevention and control, amending and supplementing of certain acts, as amended.

Batcioglu, K., Yilmaz, Z., Satilmis, B., Uyumlu, A. B., Erkal, H. S., Yucel, N., Gunals, S., Serin, M., Demirtas, H. 2012. Investigation of in vivo radioprotective and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of garlic (Allium sativum). European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 16, suppl no. 3, p. 47-57. PMid:22957418

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., Berset, C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5

Charles, D. J. 2013. Antioxidant Properties of Spices, Herbs and Other Sources. NY: Springer science. ISBN: 978-1-4614-4310-0.

Chekki, R. Z., Snoussi, A., Hamrouni, I., Bouzouita, N. 2014. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and ethanol extract. Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 947-956. https://doi.org/10.13171/mjc.3.4.2014.09.07.11

Chen, S., Shen, X., Cheng, S., Li, P., Du, J., Chang, Y., Meng, H. 2013. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties. Plos One, vol. 8, no. 11, p. e79730. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079730

Elhamidi, M. Y. 2010. The Contribution of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption to Human Health. In de la Rosa, L. A., Alvarez-Parrilla, E., González-Aguilar, G. A. Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional value and Stability. Wiley-Balcwell, p. 3-53. ISBN: 978-0-8138-0320-3.

Elhamidi, M., Elshami, S. M. 2015. Scavenging Activity of Differnet Garlic Extracts and Garlic Powder and their Antioxidant Effect on Heated Sunflower Oil. American Journal of Food Technology, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 135-146. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2015.135.146

Fritsch, M. R., Friesen, N. 2002. Evolution, domestication and taxonomy. Wallingford UK : CABI Publishing. ISBN: 0851995101. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851995106.0005

Fritsch, R. M., Blattner, F. R., Gurushidze, M. 2010. New classification of Allium L. subg. Melanocrommyum (Webb & Berthel) Rouy (Alliaceae) based on molecular and morphological characters. Phyton, vol. 49, no. 2, p. 145-220.

Hu, Ch. 2012. Factors affecting phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ontario vegetable crops. Ontario Canada : Guelphl. 208 p. https://doi.org/10214/3592

Jastrzebski, Z., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Namiesnik, J., Zachwieja, Z., Barton, H., Pawelzik, E., Arancibia-Avila, P., Toledo, F., Gorinstein, S. 2007. The bioactivity of processed garlic (Allium sativum L.) as shown in vitro and in vivo studies on rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 9, p. 1626-1633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.02.028

Kim, J. W., Huh, J. E., Kyung, S. H., Kyung, K. H. 2004. Antimicrobial activity of alk(en)yl sulfides found in essential oils of garlic and onion. Food Science and Biotechnology, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 235-239.

Lachman, J., Proněk, D., Hejtmanková, A., Dudjak, J., Pivec, V., Faitová, K. 2003. Total polyphenol and main flavonoid antioxidant in different onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties. Horticultural Science, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 142-147.

Lanzotti, V. 2006. The analysis of onion and garlic. Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1112, no. 1-2, p. 3-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.016

Pérez-Gregorio, R. M., Garcia-Falcon, M. S., Simal-Gandara, J., Rodriguez, A. S., Almeida, D. P. F. 2009. Identification and quantification of flavonoids in traditional cultivars of red and white onions at harvest. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 592-598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.08.013

Ramkissoon, J. S., Mahomoodally, M. F., Ahmed, N., Subratty, A. H. 2012. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potencial, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices. Journal of Medical Food, vol. 15, no. 12, p. 1116-1123. https://doi.org/10.1089/JMF.2012.0113

Rizwani, G. H., Shareef, H. 2011. Genus Allium: The Potential Nutritive and Therapeutic Source. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 158-165. https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.02.11

Shalaby, E. A., Shanab, S. M. M. 2013. Antioxidant compounds, assays of determination ad mode of action. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 10, p. 528-539. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP2013.3474

Shebis, Y., Iluz, D., Kinel-Tahan, Y., Dubinski, Z., Yehoshua, Y. 2013. Natural Antioxidants: Function and Sources. Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 643-649. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.46083

Srivastava, S., Pathak, P. H. 2012. Garlic (Allium sativum) extract supplementation alters the glycogen deposition in liver and protein metabolism in gonads of female albino rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 126-129.

Tepe, B., Sokmen, M., Akpulat, H., Sokmen, A. 2005. In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of five species from Turkey. Food Chemistry, vol. 92, no. 1, p. 89-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.030

Trifunschi, S., Munteanu, M. F., Agotici, V., Pitea, S., Gligor, R. 2015. Determination of Flavonoid and Polyphenol Compounds in Viscum Album and Allium sativum Extract. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 382-385. https://doi.org/10.3329/icpj.v4i5.22861

Tsao, R. 2010. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Dietary Polyphenols. Nutrients, vol. 2, no. 12, p. 1231-1246. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2121231

Vlase, L., Parvu, M., Parvu, E. A., Toiu, A. 2013. Chemical Constituents of Three Allium Species from Romania. Molecules, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 114-127. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18010114

Wangcharoen, W., Morasuk, W. 2007. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of some Thai culinary plants. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 1, p. 100-106.

Wangcharoen, W., Morasuk, W. 2009. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant capacity of garlic. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 60-70.

Yang, J., Meyers, K. J., Van Der Heide, J., Liu, R. H. 2004. Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 22, p. 6787-6793. https://doi.org/10.1021/JF0307144

Young, I. S., Woodside, J. V. 2001. Antioxidants in health and disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 176-186. https://doi.org/ 10.1136/jcp.54.3.176

Downloads

Published

2017-01-29

How to Cite

Lenková, M. ., Bystrická, J. ., Vollmannová, A. ., Tóth, T. ., & Kovarovič, J. . (2017). Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 11(1), 65–70. https://doi.org/10.5219/698

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >> 

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.