Effect of essential oils of Lamiaceae plants on the Rhizopus spp.
Keywords:essential oils, Rhizopus spp., antifungal activity, vapour phase
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fungicidal effect of eleven essential oils against six isolates of the genus Rhizopus. Isolates were obtained from various moldy foods (chestnut, bread, strawberry, nectarine, blackberry and cherry tomatoes). The essential oils used in this study were extracts of basil (Oscimum basilicum L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia MILLER.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.). Semi-quantitative composition of the essential oil samples was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 139 compounds, of which 49 were presented in ≥1% amount in at least one essential oil. The antifungal activity of essential oils against the Rhizopus spp. was determined, using micro-atmosphere method (0.625 μL.ml-1 of air), during 7 days. Seven essential oils: thyme, mint, summer savory, lavender, marjoram, oregano and wild thyme completely inhibited the growth of all isolates. Other essential oils have different effects on the growth of isolates. Basil essential oil stimulated growth of two isolates on the second day of cultivation. The growth of other isolates was, by contrast, inhibited by this essential oil in the same time of cultivation. Hyssop essential oil completely inhibited growth of two isolates, other 4 isolates were inhibited to fourth day of cultivation. In conclusion, certain essential oils are highly effective in vapour phase and can be used in another test of their antifungal activity and could be used in control of Rhizopus spp. or other fungal pathogens.
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