Assessment of the functional quality and safety of yoghurts produced with starter cultures obtained from selected commercially sold yoghurts
Keywords:bile tolerance, nutritional quality, haematology, histology
The study focused on the examination of laboratory prepared yoghurts which were fermented with selected starter cultures from commercially sold yoghurt. The starter cultures were molecularly identified (16s rRNA) as Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Pediococcuspentosaceus and Enterococcus durans. The isolates were examined for bile tolerance as an indicator of their ability to survive in the gut. The starter cultures were used to produce different yoghurts in the following order: Enterococcus lactis produced yoghurt, L. plantarum and L. pentosus produced yoghurt, Pediococcuspentosaceus produced yoghurt, E. durans produced yoghurt and yoghurt produced with all starter cultures. All yoghurts were examined for nutritional quality (vitamin A, B12 and C content, soluble and casein bound magnesium and calcium and proximate nutrient composition). At p ≤0.05, there was statistical significant difference in the nutritional content with P. pentosaceus contained yoghurt, E. durans contained yoghurt and yoghurt produced with a combination of all isolates recording the highest nutritional values and the lowest was observed with the control. Safety tests such as haematology and histology were carried out on wistar rats. After 7 days of feeding the rats in groups with the different yoghurts and a control without yoghurt, there were marked improvements in the red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts but no significant difference in the differentials at p ≤0.05. The isolates were also observed to have no disruptive effect on the morphology and structure of the small intestine. Overall, the use of these lactic acid bacteria strains showed immense benefits in their use as starter cultures and the study demonstrated safety of the final products for consumption.
Aboderin, F. I., Oyetayo, V. O. 2006. Haematological studies of rats fed different doses of probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from fermenting corn slurry, Journal of Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 102-105.
Anupama, G., Nevedita, S. 2017. Characterization of Potential Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria-Pediococcus acidilactici Ch-2 Isolated from Chuli- A Traditional Apricot Product of Himalayan Region for the Production of Novel Bioactive Compounds with Special Therapeutic Properties. Journal of Food: Microbiology, safety and hygiene, vol. 2. no. 1, p. 9-11.
ASEAN, 2011. Manual of Food Analysis. Regional centre of ASEAN network of food data system. Institute of nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand.
Berry A., Running, J. A., David, K. S., Richard, P. B. 2002. Vitamin C production in microorganisms. United States patent publication. 0012979 A1, p. 1-12.
Boyaval, P. 1989. Lactic acid bacteria and metal ions. INRA Editions, vol. 69, no. 2, p. 87-113 https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:198927
Champagne, C. P., Gardener, N. J. 2005. Challenges in the Addition of Probiotic Cultures to Foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 45, p. 61-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408690590900144 PMid:15730189
Charles, B., Ernest, C. I., Mamudu, H. B., Ohene, B., Vincent, G. Z. 2016. Microbial ecology and effectiveness of different starter cultures in yoghurts produced from whole cow milk and soybeans. African Journal Food Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 107-117.
Cheng-Chih, T., Sew-Feni, L., Quen-Rong, H., Lan-Chun, C., Chun-Chih, H. 2014. Safety evaluation of multiple strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus in wistar rats based on the Ames test and 28-day feeding study. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 9-11.
Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, CLSI 2013. Performance standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: seventeenth informational supplement M100-S17. Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA, USA, Vol. 27 No. 1.
DiRienzo, D. B. 2000. Symposium: Probiotic Bacteria: Implications for Human Health. Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, p. 382S-383S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.2.382S
Ehirim, F. N., Onyeneke, E. N. 2013. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of yoghurt manufactured with Cow milk and Goat milk. Natural and Applied Science, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 10-15.
Eweka, A. O., Om'Iniabohs F. A. E. 2011. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate on the ovaries of adult wistar rats. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, vol. 1, no. 1. p. 37-43. PMid:23209953
Fabianová, J., Ducková, V., Čanigová, M., Kročko, M. 2011. Presence of Enterococci in cow milk and their antibiotic resistance. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 17-21. https://doi.org/10.5219/45
FAO/WHO, 1977. Report joint FAO/WHO expert committee on the code of principlesconcerning milk and milk products. FAO/WHO, Rome.
Foulquie, M. R., Sarantinopoulos, P., Tsakalidou, E., De Vuyst, L. 2006. The role and application of enterococci in food and health. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 106, p. 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.06.026 PMid:16216368
Franz, Z. C. M., van Belkum, M. J., Holzapfel, W. H., Abriouel, H., Galvez, A. 2007. Diversity of Enterococcal Bacteriocins and their Grouping in a New Classification Scheme. FEMS Microbiology Review, vol. 31, p. 293-310. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2007.00064.x PMid:17298586
Gad, S., Kholif, A. M., Sayed, A. F. 2010. Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yoghurt Resulting Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skimmed milk. American Journal of Food Technology, vol. 5, p. 250-259. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2010.250.259
Ghadge, P. N., Prasad, K., Kadam, P. S. 2008. Effect of fortification on the physico chemical and sensory properties of buffalo milk yoghurt. Electronic Journal of Environmental Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 7, p. 2890-2899.
Giraffa, G. 2003. Functionality of enterococci in dairy products. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 88, p. 215-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00183-1
Greenberg, A. E., Trussell, R. R., Clesceri L. S. 1985. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 16th edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, p.146-150.
Hami, K. 2011. Antibacterial effects of yoghurts isolated from yoghurts against some common bacterial pathogens. African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 5, no. 25, p. 4363-4367.
Hamid, M., Amouoghli, T., Ali, H., Alireza, B., Guitty, K. 2008. Study on the effect of consuming different amount of fermented milk with Lactobacillus casei 01 on haematological parameters in rats. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 3, no. 12, p. 1376-1380.
Hassen, B., Shanmugam, S., Tarek T. 2010. Vitamin A from Physiology to Disease Prevention. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 1 no. 1, p. 68-73.
Ida Muryany, M. Y., Ina Salwany, M. Y., Ghazali, A. R., Hing, H. L., Nor Fadilah, R. 2017. Identification and characterization of the Lactic Acid Bacteria isolated from Malaysian fermented fish (Pekasam). International Food Research Journal, vol. 24, no. 2, p. 868-875.
Igbabul, B., Shember, J., Amove, J. 2014. Physicochemical, microbiological an sensory evaluation of yoghurt sold in Makurdi Metropolis. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 129-135.
Ihemeje, A., Nwachukwu, C. N., Ekwe, C. C. 2014. Production and quality evaluation of flavoured yoghurts using carrot, pineapple and spiced yoghurts using ginger and pepper fruit. African Journal of Food Science, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 163-169. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJFS2014.1244
Isolauri, E., Juntunen, M., Rautanen, T., Sillanaukee, P., Koivula, T. 1991. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp. Strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in Children. Pediatrics, vol. 88, p. 90-97. PMid:1905394
Kai, S. H., Bongard, V., Simon C. 2014. Low-fat and high-fat dairy products are related to blood lipids and cardiovascular risk score. Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol., vol. 21, p. 1557-1567.
Katie, F., Carol, P. 2009. The ecology, epidemiology and virulence of Enterococcus. Microbiology, vol. 155, p. 1749-1757. https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.026385-0 PMid:19383684
Kumar, M., Dhaka, P., Vijay, D., Vergis, J., Mohan, V. 2016. Antimicrobial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus against multidrug-resistant entero-aggregative Escherichia coli. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 265-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.05.014 PMid:27451088
Lilis, N. 2015. A review: Health promoting lactic acid bacteria in traditional Indonesian fermented foods. Food Science and Human Wellness, vol. 4, p. 47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2015.06.001
Lim, S., Dong-Soon, I. 2008. Screening and characterization of probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from Korean fermented foods. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 178-186. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.0804.269
McBean, L. D. 1999. Emerging Dietary Benefits of Dairy Foods. Nutrition, vol. 34, p. 47-53. https://doi.org/10.1097/00017285-199901000-00008
Miguel, A., Fernando, M., Gonzalo, G., Manuela, J. 2003. Total and Soluble contents of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc in yoghurts. Food Chemistry, vol. 80, no. 4, p. 573-578. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00505-8
Naoual, J., Abdelaziz, B., Roberta, C., Elisabetta, D., Mohammed, B. 2010. Characterization of Enterococci isolated from Moroccan Dairy Products. African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 4, no. 16, p. 1708-1774.
Obi, C. N., Olugbue, V. U, Mpamugo, C. P. 2016. Yoghurt Production from Powdered Milk using Mixed Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures. Saudi Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 42-49.
Okiki, P. A., Adeniji, C. A., Oyetunji, O. A., Yusuf, O. A., Peters, O. A. 2018. Assessment of the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of nono- a fermented cow milk. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 26-32.https://doi.org/10.5219/839
Oksanen, P. J., Salminen, S., Saxelin, M., Hamalainen, P., Ihantola-Vormisto, A., Muurasniemi- Isoviita, L. N. S., Oksanen, T. Porsti, I., Salminen, E. 1990. Prevention of travelers diarrhea by Lactobacillus GG. Annals of Medicine, vol. 22, p. 53-56. https://doi.org/10.3109/07853899009147242 PMid:2184847
Ouwehand, A. C., Vesterlund, S. 2004. Antimicrobial components from lactic acid bacteria. In Salminen, S., Wright, A. Lactic Acid Bacteria Microbiological and Fuctional Aspects, 3rd ed., Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press, 656 p. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780824752033.ch11
Rasic, J. L., Kurmann, J. A. 1978. Yogurt. Copenhagen, Denmark : Technical Dairy Publishing House. p. 55-68.
Romanova, K., Urminska, D. 2017. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3027 qnd Lactobacillus brevis CCM 1815 for fermentation of cereal substrates. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 544-549. https://doi.org/10.5219/696
Shao-Chi, W., Fu-Jin, W., Chorng-Liang, P. 2007. Growth and survival of lactic acid bacteria during the fermentation and storage of sea weed oligosaccharides solution. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 104-114.
Shu, Q., Zhou, J. S., Rutherfurd, K. J., Britles, M. J., Prasad, J., Gopal, P. K., Gill, H. S. 1999. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus HNO17, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HNO19) have no adverse effects on the health of mice, International Dairy Journal. vol. 9, no. 11, p. 831-836 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-
Siitonen, S., Vapaatalo, H., Salmknen, S., Gordin, A., Saxelin, M., Wikberg, R., Kirkkola, A. L. 1990. Effects of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Annals of Medicine, vol. 22, p. 57-59. https://doi.org/10.3109/07853899009147243 PMid:2184848
Swain, M. R., Anandharaj, M., Ray, R. C., Rani, R. P. 2014. Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics. Biotechnology Research International, vol. 25, no. 4, p. 24. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/250424 PMid:25343046
Tamime, A. Y., Deeth, H. C. 1980. Yoghurt: Technology and Biochemistry. Journal of Food Protection, vol. 43, no. 12, p. 939-977. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-43.12.939
The Dairy Council, 2013. The Nutritional Composition of Dairy Products. London, UK : The Dairy Council.
Van Herck, H., Baumans, V., Van Der, C. N. R. 1992. Histological changes in the orbital region after orbital puncture. Laboratory Animal, vol. 26, p. 53-58.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).