The effect of explant, BAP and 2,4-D on callus induction of Trachyspermum ammi


  • Bahman Fazeli-Nasab Faculty Scientific Member, Agricultural Research Institute, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran



Carum copticum (L.), cotyledon, Plant Hormone, Thymol


Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) has been considered as an important medicinal plant because it contains many alkaloids such as Thymol. In vitro culture of Ajowan provides new tissue sources such as callus, cell suspension and seedlings to produce secondary metabolites. The present study describes callus production optimization procedures experiment that was a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design at three levels with four explants (root, shoot, leaf and cotyledon) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg.L-1) and 2,4-D (2, 4 and 8 mg.L-1). Comparison of means showed that the maximum callus production was obtained from shoot explants, the cotyledon and leaf explants were in the second orders. In overall, 0.25 mg.L-1 BAP with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-D concentrations proved to be optimal for the production of maximum callus and also were more effect on callus weight, callus volume and callus color. The best explant based on callus weight was cotyledon explant and for callus volume was shoot explant. The result were shown that the effective hormone combination and explant was 2 mg.L-1 2,4-D with 0.25 mg.L-1 BAP concentrations were more effect on callus induction and shoot explant, respectively.



Download data is not yet available.


Afolabi, O. B., Ibidun, O. O., Ibitayo, O. A., Bolaji, A. O., Idowu, O. I., Damilola, B. B., Abimbola, F., Olabisi, O. T., Joseph, A. O., Funmilayo, A. 2018a. Evaluation of antioxidant potentials of different solvent-fractions of Dialium indium (African Black velvet tamarind) fruit pulp-in vitro. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 70-78.

Afolabi, O. B., Oloyede, O. I., Ojo, A. A., Onansanya, A. A., Agunbiade, S. O., Ajiboye, B. O., Johnson, J., Peters, O. A. 2018b. In vitro antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect of hydro-ethanolic extract from African black velvet tamarind (Dialium indium) pulp on type 2 diabetes linked enzymes. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 413-421.

Ahmed, E. E., Bisztray, G., Velich, I. 2002. Plant regeneration from seedling explants of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Acta Biologica Szegediensis, vol. 46, no. 3-4, p. 27-28.

Amini, F., Ganbarzade, Z., Askary, M. M. 2013. Optimization of Callus production and Plant regeneration in Salsola Aebuscula Pall. Jornal of Cell and Tissue, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 129-137.

Amiri, H., Fahimi, H. 2003. The effect of different concentrations of potassium salt tolerance bean in tissue culture. Science Journal of Tehran University, vol. 29, p. 320-326.

Anzidei, M., Bennici, A., Schiff, S., Tani, C., Mori, B. 2000. Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in Foeniculum vulgare. Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture, vol. 61, no. 1, p. 69-79.

Anzidei, M., Vivona, L., Schiff, S., Bennici, A. 1996. In vitro culture of Foeniculum vulgare: callus characteristics in relation to morphogenesis. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 263-268.

Arekhi, S., Aghdasi, M., Khalafi, M. 2012. Optimization of Silybum Marianum Tissue Culture for Production of Medicinal. Journal of Plant production (Journal of Agricultural Sciences and natural resources), vol. 19, no. 2, p. 69-87.

Dattner, A. M. 2003. From medical herbalism to phytotherapy in dermatology: back to the future. Dermatologic therapy, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 106-113. PMid:12919112

Ebrahimie, E., Habashi, A., Ghareyazie, B., Ghannadha, M., Mohammadie, M. 2003. A rapid and efficient method for regeneration of plantlets from embryo explants of cumin (Cuminum cyminum). Plant cell, tissue and organ culture, vol. 75, no. 1, p. 19-25.

El-Shemy, H. A., Khalafalla, M., Wakasa, K., Ishimoto, M. 2002. Reproducible transformation in two grain legumes-soybean and azuki bean-using different systems. Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, vol. 7, no. 2B, p. 709-720. PMid:12378231

Elaleem, K. G. A., Modawi, R. S., Khalafalla, M. M. 2009. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in tuber segment culture of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Diamant. African journal of biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 11, p. 2529-2534.

Fatahi Moghadam, J., Hamid Oghli, Y., Fotohi Ghazvini, R., Ghasem Nezhad, M., Bakhshi, D. 2011. Assessment of physicochemical and anti-oxidant of crest in some joinary cultivars of citrus. Journal of Horticultural Science, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 211-217. (In Persian).

Fazeli-Nasab, B., Davari, A., Nikoei, M. 2016. The effect of Kinetin on seed germination and seedling growth under salt stress in Sistan C. copticum. In Proceeding of the Second International & Fourteenth National Iranian Crop Science Congress, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. p. 1-4. Available at:

Fazeli-Nasab, B., Fooladvand, Z. 2016. A Review on Iranian Carum copticum (L.): Composition and Biological Activities. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 1-8.

Ghadiri Sardrood, S., Ghamari Zare, A., Assareh, M. H., Shahrzad, S., Bakhshi Khaniki, G. 2012. Effects of TDZ and 2,4-D growth regulators on callus production and organogenesis in Eucalyptus rubida. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 304-313.

Hohtola, A. 1988. Seasonal changes in explant viability and contamination of tissue cultures from mature Scots pine. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 211-222.

Huseini, H. F., Larijani, B., Heshmat, R. A., Fakhrzadeh, H., Radjabipour, B., Toliat, T., Raza, M. 2006. The efficacy of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) in the treatment of type II diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Phytotherapy research, vol. 20, no. 12, p. 1036-1039. PMid:17072885

Karami, M., Bagherieh-Najjar, M. B., Aghdasi, M. 2013. Optimization of conditions suitable for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) regeneration. Journal of Plant Biology, vol. 5, no. 15, p. 1-14.

Karegar, M., Sajjadi, S. R., Mobasheri, S., Sadeghi, H., Behrouznam, B. 2011. Study of tissue culture and organogenesis in fennel explants. In proceeding of the National conference of agricultural management, Islam Azad University, Jahrom branch. Iran, p. 1390. (In Persian) Available at:

Khayatzadeh, M., Nabati-Ahmadi, D., Rajabi-Memari, H., Abdollahi, M. R. 2011. Optimization of Callogenesis and Regeneration of Two Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Cultivars Utilizing Three Different Explants. Agricultural biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 1-8.

Kurniati, E. 2013. Case induction and capsaicin incoming in nutrien MS virtual various and combinations sower growth supply (Induksi Kalus dan Penghasilan Capsaicin pada Variasi Kadar Nutrien MS dan Kombinasi Zat Pengatur Tumbuh), UAJY. Available at:

Mafavi Fard, M. R., J, A., Beiki, A. H. 2010. callus Production and plant regeneration in Three Iranian Cumin Landraces (Cuminum Cyminum). Plant Production Technology (Agricultural Research), vol. 9, no. 2, p. 11-19.

Malik, K. A., Saxena, P. K. 1991. Regeneration in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Promotive role of N6-benzylaminopurine in cultures from juvenile leaves. Planta, vol. 184, no. 1, p. 148-150. PMid:24193941

Reis, É. S., Pinto, J. E. B., Rosado, L. D. S., Corrêa, R. M. 2015. Influence of culture medium on In vitro seed germination and multiplication rate of Melissa officinalis L. Revista Ceres, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 160-167.

Sarkheil, P., Omidi, M., Peyghambari, S., Davazdahemami, S. 2009. The effects of plant growth regulators and explants on callogenesis, regeneration and suspension culture in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, vol. 25, no. 3, p. 364-375.

Schultze, W., Hose, S., Abou-Mandour, A. and Czygan, F.-C. 1993. Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm): In: Bajaj Y. P. S. (ed) Medicinal and Aromatic Plants V. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, vol. 24. Berlin, Heidelberg, germany : Springer, p. 242-268. eISBN: 978-3-642-58062-8

Sobhanizadeh, A., Solouki, M. and Fazeli-Nasab, B. 2017. Optimization of Callus Induction and Effects of Biological and Non- biological Elicitors on Content of Phenol/ Flavonoid Compounds in Nigella sativa under In-Vitro Conditions. Journal of Cell & Tissue, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 165-184.

Soltanipol, M. M., Mohammadi, A., Rahnama, H., Abbaszadeh, B. 2011. Callusogenesis investigation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 45-54.

Veltecheva, M., Svetleva, D., Petkova, S. P., Perl, A. 2005. In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation of common bean. Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 107, p. 2-10.




How to Cite

Fazeli-Nasab, B. . (2018). The effect of explant, BAP and 2,4-D on callus induction of Trachyspermum ammi. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 12(1), 578–586.