Phthalic acid esters content in yoghurt with chia flour and bamboo fiber during storage time


  • Marcela Jandlová Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Food Technology, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno
  • Lubomí­r Lampí­ř Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Horticulture, Kamycka 129, 165 00 Prague
  • Alžbeta Jarošová Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Food Technology, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno
  • Roman Pytel Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Food Technology, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno
  • Šárka Nedomová Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Food Technology, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno
  • Sylvie Ondruší­ková Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Food Technology, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno
  • Vojtěch Kumbár Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Technology and Automobile Transport (section physics), Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno



yogurt, dietary fiber, contaminant, dibutylphthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate


Phthalic acid esters are plasticizers, they can migrate freely from plastic to their surroundings. They have negative health effects. European legislation sets specific migration limits for phthalic acid esters. In our study, we deal with two esters of phthalic acid, dibutylphtalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). It was studied the effect of storage of four types of yoghurt on the concentration of phthalic acid esters. Yoghurts contained 1% chia flour, 5% chia flour, 1% bamboo fiber and 5% bamboo fiber. Yoghurts were stored in plastic cups, which contained both examined phthalic acid esters. Esters of phthalic acid were determined after 1 week of storage then after 2 weeks of storage and in the original raw material. Furthermore, the pH of the yoghurt was determined. The pH values ”‹”‹were correlated with phthalate concentrations: the correlation coefficient for DBP with a pH of -0.0265 and for DEHP with a pH of 0.3075. Mean concentrations of DEHP decreased over time, while DBP decreased for yoghurt with 1% chia flour, while in other cases they increased. The mean DBP concentrations in yoghurt were higher than the average concentrations of DEHP. Comparing the mean sample values ”‹”‹with t-test for dependent samples for yoghurt of the same type, when comparing the DBP or DEHP concentration in week 1 with the DBP or DEHP concentration at week 2, the mean values ”‹”‹were consistent. It can be noted that there was no increase in DEHP concentrations from cups to yoghurts, which was probably due to a lower concentration in cups than the DBP concentration. DBP concentrations increased in 3 of the 4 types of yoghurt. The determined pH in yoghurts did not differ significantly. Apparently a greater effect on the migration of phthalic acid esters will have in our case a different yoghurt consistency than pH. It would be appropriate to examine the effect of food density on the migration of phthalic acid esters. Likewise, it would be appropriate to examine the effect of pH but in the same food with different pH on the migration of phthalic acid esters.



Download data is not yet available.


Andrady, A. L., Neal, M. A. 2009. Applications and societal benefits of plastics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 364, no. 1526, p. 1977-1984.

ATSDR, 2001. Toxicological profile for di-n-butyl phthalate [online] 2001-10-04. [cit. 2017-12-04] Available at:

ATSDR, 2002. Toxicological profile for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate [online] 2001-06-06. [cit. 2017-12-05] Available at:

Benson, R. W. 2014. Hazards of Food Contact Material: Phthalates. In Motarjemi, Y., Moy, G., Todd, E. Encyclopedia of Food Safety, London, UK : Elsevier, p. 438-443. ISBN 9780123786135.

Betteridge, V. A., Caers, W., Lupton, J. R., Slavin, J. L., Devries, J. 2012. Implementation Issues of the Codex Definition of Dietary Fiber: Degree of Polymerization, Physiological, and Methodological Considerations. In Cho, S. S., Almeida, N. Dietary fiber and health. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, p. 19-32. ISBN 9781439899373.

Bošnir, J., Puntarić, D., Škes, I., Klarić, M., Šimić, S., Zorić, I. 2003. Migration of phthalates from plastic products to model solutions. Coll. Antropol., vol. 27, p. 23-30. PMid:12955888

Brimer, L. 2011. Contaminants from processing machinery and food contact materials. In Brimer, L. Chemical food safety. Cambridge, MA : CABI, p. 191-195. ISBN 978-1-84593-676-1.

Cadogan, D. 2002. Health and environmental impact of phthalates. Plastics, Additives and Compounding, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 28-29.

Clark, K. E., David, R. M., Guinn, R., Kramarz, K. W., Lampi, M. A., Staples, C. A. 2011. Modeling Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters: A Comparison of Indirect and Biomonitoring Estimation Methods. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 923-965.

Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 of 14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. OJ L 12, 15.1.2011, p. 1-89.

Dhingra, D., Michael, M., Rajput, H., Patil, R. T. 2012. Dietary fibre in foods: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 49, no. 3, p. 255-266.

Fromme, H., Küchler, T., Otto, T., Pilz, K., Müller, J., Wenzel, A. 2002. Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment. Water Research, vol. 36, no. 6, p. 1429-1438.

Gajdůšková, V., Jarošová, A., Ulrich, R. 1996. Occurrence of phthalic acid esters in food packaging materials. Potrav. Vědy, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 99-108.

Hauser, R., Calafat, A. M. 2005. Phthalates and human health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 62, no. 11, p. 806-818.

Hines, C. J., Hopf, N. B. N., Deddens, J. A., Silva, M. J., Calafat, A. M. 2011. Estimated daily intake of phthalates in occupationally exposed groups. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 133-141.

Holm, V. K. 2010. Shelf Life of Foods in Biobased Packaging. In Robertson, G. L. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, p. 353-365. ISBN 1420078445.

Jandlová, M., Kumbár, V., Jarošová, A., Pytel, R., Nedomová, Š., Ondrušíková, S. 2017. The sensory evaluation of yoghurts with chia flour, quinoa flour, nopal powder, apple fiber and bamboo fiber. MendelNet 2017: Proceedings of International PhD Students Conference. Brno : Mendel University in Brno, p. 547-552. ISBN 978-80-7509-529-9.

Jarošová, A., Gajdůšková, V., Razsyk, J., Sevela, K. 1999. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate in the tissues of pigs and broiler chicks after their oral administration. Veterinary Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 61-70.

Kamrin, M. A. 2009. Phthalate Risks, Phthalate Regulation, and Public Health: A Review. In Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 157-174.

Koch, H. M., Drexler, H., Angerer, J. 2003. An estimation of the daily intake of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalates in the general population. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 206, no. 2, p. 77-83.

Larsson, K., Lindh, C. H., Jönsson, B. A. G., Giovanoulis, G., Bibi, M., Bottai, M., Bergström, A., Berglund, M. 2017. Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure. Environment International, vol. 102, p. 114-124.

Latini, G. 2005. Monitoring phthalate exposure in humans. Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 361, no. 1-2, p. 20-29.

Martino-Andrade, A. J., Chahoud, I. 2010. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 54, no. 1, p. 148-157.

McKinley, M. C. 2005. The nutrition and health benefits of yoghurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 1-12.

Meeker, J. D., Sathyanarayana, S., Swan, S. H. 2009. Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 364, no. 1526, p. 2097-2113.

Mikula, P., Svobodová, Z., Smutná, M. 2011. Phthalates: toxicology and food safety - a review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 217-223.

Petersen, J. H. 2003. Migration of Compounds from Food Contact Materials and Articles. In D'Mello, J. P. F. Food safety: contaminants and toxins. Cambridge, MA : CABI Publishing, p. 271-291. ISBN 0851996078.

Piotrowska, B. 2005. Toxic Components of Food Packaging Materials. In Dąbrowski, W. M., Sikorski, Z. E. Toxins in Food. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, p. 313-333. ISBN 978-0-8493-1904-4.

Przybylińska, P. A., Wyszkowski, M. 2016. Environmental contamination with phthalates and its impact on living organisms. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 347-356.

Pytel, R., Cwiková, O., Ondrušíková, S., Nedomová, Š., Kumbár, V. 2018. Effect of additives to microbiological quality of yogurts. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 186-194.

Rastkari, N., Jeddi, M. Z., Yunesian, M., Ahmadkhaniha, R. 2017. The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on Release of Phthalate Ester into Packed Acidic Juice. Food Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 55, no. 4, p. 562-569.

Schecter, A., Lorber, M., Guo, Y., Wu, Q., Yun, S. H., Kannan, K., Hommel, M., Imran, N., Hynan, L. S., Cheng, D., Colacino, J. A., Birnbaum, L. S. 2013. Phthalate Concentrations and Dietary Exposure from Food Purchased in New York State. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 121, no. 4, p. 473-479.

Schettler, T. 2006. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. International Journal of Andrology, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 134-139.

Sharman, M., Read, W. A., Castle, L., Gilbert, J. 1994. Levels of di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese. Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 375-385.

Sørensen, L. K. 2006. Determination of phthalates in milk and milk products by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 20, no. 7, p. 1135-1143.

Velíšek, J. 2002. Food chemistry III. 2nd ed. Tábor, Czech Republic : OSSIS. 343 p. ISBN 80-86659-03-8.

Velíšek, J., Hajšlová, J. 2009. Food chemistry II. 3rd ed. Tábor, Czech Republic : OSSIS. 623 p. ISBN 978-80-86659-16-9.




How to Cite

Jandlová, M. ., Lampí­ř, L. ., Jarošová, A. ., Pytel, R. ., Nedomová, Šárka ., Ondruší­ková, S. ., & Kumbár, V. . (2018). Phthalic acid esters content in yoghurt with chia flour and bamboo fiber during storage time. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 12(1), 650–656.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>